INGL´ES - Departamento de Física. - Universidad de Chile

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Departamento de F´ısica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile. ˜ noa. Casilla 653, Correo 1, Santiago Las Palmeras 3425, Nu˜ fono: 562 978 7276 fax: 562 271 2973 e-mail: [email protected]

Apuntes de un curso de

´ INGLES versi´ on 1.6-080806

Mar´ıa Teresa Anabal´on

Unit 1

1.1

Some basic elements of the sentence. Personal Pronouns

Possessive Adjectives

I you he she it we you they

my your his her its our your their

: : : : : : : :

yo t´ u el ella nosotros ustedes ellos, ellas

: : : : : : : :

Demonstrative Adjectives This : esto, e, a That : eso, e, a aquel, lla These : estos, estas Those : esos, as, aquellos, as.

mi, mis tu , tus su, sus (de ´el) su, sus (de ella) su, sus nuestro, a, os, as su, sus (de uds.) su, sus (de ellos)

Articles a/an : un, una the : el, la, los, las

Prepositions in

:

en

in the classroom in the morning on the desk on Monday at home at ten o’clock

on

:

en

at

:

en

near far from etc.

: cerca de : lejos de

3

4

UNIT 1.

1.2

Verb to be: am, is, are. Positive I am You are ) He She is It ) We You are They

1.3

Negative

(I’m) (you’re) (he’s) (she’s) (it’s) (we’re) (you’re) (they’re)

I You He She It We You They

am not are not ) is not ) are not

(I’m not) (you aren’t) (he isn’t) (she isn’t) (it isn’t) (we aren’t) (you aren’t) (they aren’t)

Positive

Question

I am You are ) He She is It ) We You are They

Am Are

I? you? ( he? Is she? it? ( we? Are you ? they?

Sentence structure. Subject Verb

Complement

I He We She They

a good student at home now in class hard this term now

am isn’t are is working aren’t resting

Examples: Is this seat free? Are you tired?

No, it isn’t. Yes, I’m exhausted.

1.3. SENTENCE STRUCTURE.

5

Adjectives big little long short nice good-looking slim ugly cheap easy hard foolish boring tiring amusing interesting good uncomfortable well-known happy sad young busy available thirsty cold lucky afraid of wrong careless single widowed lazy funny sick private clean quiet fast

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

grande peque˜ no, chico largo bajo, corto agradable, bonito buen mozo, atractivo delgado feo barato f´acil dif´ıcil, duro tonto aburrido (ser) cansador (ser) entretenido (ser) interesante (ser) bueno inc´omodo muy conocido feliz triste joven ocupado disponible, desocupado sediento (sed) frio afortunado (suerte) miedo a,de incorrecto, equivocado descuidado soltero viudo flojo divertido enfermo particular, privado limpio tranquilo r´apido

small large tall beautiful pretty thin fat awful expensive difficult intelligent bored tired amused interested bad comfortable famous unknown unhappy angry old free hungry hot sleepy patient right careful married divorced worried hardworking healthy ill public dirty noisy slow

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

peque˜ no, chico amplio, grande alto hermoso bonito delgado gordo espantoso caro dif´ıcil inteligente aburrido (estar) cansado (estar) entretenido (estar) interesado (estar) malo c´omodo famoso desconocido infeliz enojado viejo libre,desocupado hambriento acalorado, calor somnoliento (sue˜ no) paciente correcto (raz´on) cuidadoso casado divorciado preocupado trabajador sano, saludable enfermo (grave) p´ ublico sucio ruidoso lento

6

UNIT 1. cloudy windy dark late useful responsible wide open safe awake poor first third in love with

1.4

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

nublado ventoso oscuro tarde u ´til responsable ancho abierto seguro despierto pobre primero tercero enamorado de

rainy clear sunny early useless narrow closed dangerous asleep rich important second in a hurry on time

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

lluvioso despejado soleado temprano in´ util angosto cerrado peligroso dormido rico importante segundo apurado a tiempo

Exercises.

CONTINUE TALKING ABOUT THE SUBJECT. married

Example: Mr. Johnson is an architect. 1. Peter is ten and Alice is seven.

brother and sister. Tuesday.

2. Today isn’t Sunday. 3. This street is wide but

crowded in the morning.

4. Your books aren’t on the table, 5. You and I are in class.

on the floor. in room four.

6. Ellen is very pretty. Unfortunately, 7. The weather is warm because

spring.

FILL IN WITH AM IS ARE: 1. All my pens 2. Tom 3. Your house 4. Her dogs 5. I

married.

in my pencil box. in a hurry. very pretty. beautiful. not an engineer.

1.4. EXERCISES.

7 interesting.

6. All our classes 7. He and She

married to each other.

8. Your sister

a nice girl.

9. I

not tired.

you? one thousand years old.

10. That building A, AN or X ? 1. That restaurant is

expensive. interesting books.

2. These are 3. John is

attractive boy.

4. You’re

hour and

5. She isn’t wearing

half late. uniform.

6. That man is

widower and he is

7. That lady is

housewife and her husband is

8. This is

honorable person. actor.

special occasion.

9. Are you in 10. They are

hurry? nice boys.

RE-WRITE BY USING AN ADJECTIVE AND THE ARTICLE IF NECESSARY. USE DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES EACH TIME. 1. It is a day. 2. Is he an engineer?

?

3. Are Bob and Sue friends?

?

4. Jane isn’t an actress. 5. Is it a present?

?

6. Those are your shoes. WRITE THESE SENTENCES IN THE CORRECT ORDER. DO NOT ADD ANY WORD. 1. workers – aren’t – responsible – they

8

UNIT 1. 2. book – amusing – a – very – it – is

3. in – teacher – her – is – office – the?

4. film – the – is – Lord – Rings – the – of – good–a

5. expensive – a –this – is – hotel – very – not

FILL IN WITH THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE UNDERLINED WORD(S). 1. Santiago is a crowded city and

streets are very polluted.

2. The Joneses are friendly;

house is red and white.

3. Ms. Jenkins is at the park with

children.

4. This dictionary is big and 5. David is alone;

covers are strong. parents are abroad.

6. We are worried because

mother is sick.

TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH: 1. Janet y sus amigos est´an en la casa de ella.

2. El Sr. Jackson y su se˜ nora son abogados. Su oficina queda en el centro.

3. Esta no es la sala de nosotros. Nuestra sala est´a all´a.

4. Los libros de ´el no est´an en el suelo.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Is Allan hungry? (sleepy)

1.4. EXERCISES. 2. Is Ellen old? (seventeen) 3. Are you afraid of ghosts? (black cats) 4. Is your dog thirsty? (hungry) 5. Two plus two is five. Am I right? (wrong) 6. Are you patient? (nervous) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH: 1. (a) ¿Tienes hambre? (b) No, pero estoy muy cansada. 2. El pap´a de ellos no tiene mucha suerte pero es feliz.

3. Nuestros amigos no tienen mucho cuidado con sus cosas.

4. (a) ¿Tu hermano tiene veinte a˜ nos? (b) No, tiene veintitr´es. 5. (a) ¿Hace calor en Santiago en Junio? (b) No. Hace frio.

9

10

UNIT 1.

Unit 2

2.1

Prepositions. In on at behind in front of between among next to near far from under

2.2

: : : : : : : : : : :

en en en detr´as de delante de entre (dos) entre (varios) junto a, al lado de cerca de lejos de debajo de

Some uses of in. inside

parts of a building

in in in in in in in in in

in in in in in

the box the bag the wallet her purse my pocket the house my hand bed the corner

11

the the the the the

kitchen room classroom office garden

12

UNIT 2. a town, country or area

a book, magazine, a newapaper etc.

in in in in in

in in in in in

the north the south the second region England Osorno

this novel that magazine the newspaper your notebook the news

parts of the day in the morning in the afternoon in the evening (but: at night)

months and seasons in January in (the) summer in (the) spring

dressed

transportation  the car in the taxi

the woman in red the boy in green

 bus      airplane train by   ship    bicycle

the girl in jeans

others in in in in in in

2.3

class two hours fashion the sun the street time

in in in in

a hurry the mood a good/bad mood love

Some uses of on.

touching a surface

days and dates

streets and avenues

on on on on on on

on on on on on on

on Broadway Avenue on the Highway on the corner of Kent and Oak Street

the table the floor the second floor the wall my lap my shoulders

Sunday Friday morning January 1 st . July 10 th . Christmas day Thanksgiving day

2.4. SOME USES OF AT.

13 transportation on the bus on the plane on a horse (and . . . on foot)

on that train on the ship on a bicycle

others on on on on on

2.4

fire the telephone the radio television business

the radio is on/off on time on vacation on channel 36 on my way

Some uses of at. a point in time

places

at at at at at at at

at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at at

three o’clock noon sunset night lunch/dinner time this/that time this/that moment

adresses at 456 Oxford Street at 705 Central Park Avenue others at the beginning at the end at once at last at present at the end at the corner

school home work the university the bank the doctor’s Carla’s the bus stop the corner the door the table the board the window the desk the airport the cinema the restaurant the hotel the gym the stadium

14

UNIT 2. omission abroad downtown next class last week upstairs downstairs

2.5

: : : : : :

Question words. When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? What . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? What time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? What color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .? How . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? How old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? How far . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? How much . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Why . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?

2.6

: : : : : : : : : : : :

Cu´ando . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? D´onde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Qu´e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? (a) Qu´e hora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? (de)Qu´e color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? C´omo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Qu´e edad / cu´antos a˜ nos . . . . . . ? A qu´e distancia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Cu´anto cuesta(n)/vale(n) . . . . . ? Por qu´e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? Qui´en . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? De qui´en (pertenencia) . . . . . . . . ?

Possessive pronouns. Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs

2.7

en el extranjero en el centro la pr´oxima clase la semana pasada (en el piso de) arriba (en el piso de) abajo

: : : :

ex: that book is mine. ex: The guitar is yours. ex: Those pens are his. ex: These notes are hers.

: : :

ex: The decision is ours. ex: Your life is yours. ex: That piece of land is theirs.

The genitive case: ’(s). Tom’s dog. James’s friends. The children’s books. My sisters’ friends. Peter and Jason’s father. The dog’s tail. Sunday’s newspaper.

2.8. EXERCISES.

2.8

15

Exercises.

COMPLETE WITH IN-ON-AT or X 1. Their coffee break is 2. That bank is 3. We are

9:45 Kingston Avenue.

the first floor.1

classroom 4

4. The meeting is

next Monday

6. Carmen is not

Chile. She is

7. Mother isn’t

the kitchen; she is

8. The party is

Paula’s

9. The weather is warm

abroad. upstairs. Friday night.

Santiago

September.

the corner of Madison and Broadway.

11. Her children are

school

12. Are all the passengers

this time.

the plane?

13. We are always 14. Is Oxford

nine sharp.

home?

5. What time are you

10. The bank is

the morning.

time for class. England or

15. There is a man

the United States?

the door.

WRITE THE CORRESPONDING QUESTIONS: 1.

? That jacket is $200. ?

2. Those things over there are tea cups. 3.

? We are sleepy because it’s late.

4.

? Their puppy is two months old.

1

American English: first floor. British English: ground floor.

16

UNIT 2. ?

5. My birthday is in July. 6.

? Her office is ten blocks from here. ?

7. His wife is a lawyer. 8.

? Your socks are under your bed.

9.

? No, I’m not very worried.

10.

? The bank is in front of the supermarket.

11.

? Magnum is a private investigator. ?

12. It’s a quarter to one now. 13.

? His new sweat shirt is red and white. ?

14. Your project is perfect. 15.

? Their sister is a fashion designer.

16.

? She is upset because he is late for lunch.

FILL IN WITH THE CORRESPONDING QUESTION WORD. 1.

is the station from here? It’s ten minutes by bus.

2.

are your mother’s eyes? They’re brown.

2.8. EXERCISES.

17 are you so happy?

3. Because I’m in love. 4.

the next show? It’s at 9:45.

5.

are those boys? They’re my brothers.

6.

are those sneakers? They are $29.

7.

is her husband? He is an expert in electronics. is in the kitchen?

8. The boys are there. TRANSLATE 1. (a) ¿D´onde est´a el paradero?

? (b) Est´a cerca de aqu´ı. Est´a en la esquina de Norton y Fresh. . 2. (a) ¿A qu´e hora es su clase (de ella)? ? (b) Es a las 11 de la ma˜ nana. 3. ¿Cu´ando es tu cumplea˜ nos? ? Es el 31 de marzo. (a) 4. ¿Qu´e hora es? Tengo hambre. 5. ¿D´onde est´an tus hermanos a esta hora? ¿Est´an en el colegio? ? 6. (a) ¿A qu´e hora est´as en la casa? (b) Despu´es de la 7:00 p.m.

18

UNIT 2. 7. (a) Mis apuntes no est´an en el caj´on. ¿D´onde est´an? ? (b) ¡Mira! Est´an en el suelo, debajo de tu escritorio.

8. (a) ¿Por qu´e est´as preocupado? ? (b) No estoy preocupado, tengo hambre y sue˜ no. ? PROVIDE THE CORRESPONDING QUESTION TAG. 1. This is a nice sweater,

?

2. Your boots aren’t too dirty,

?

3. Your mother is a teacher,

?

4. The students are very busy,

?

5. I’m not late,

?

6. The Gibsons are at home,

?

7. The bus stop is far

?

8. These grapes aren’t very sweet,

?

9. It’s hot today,

?

10. Unfortunately, we aren’t on vacation,

?

11. Your phone number is 246-3123,

?

12. I’m not wrong,

?

EXPRESS CORRECTLY USING THE ’(S) example: This is the book of John. This is John’s book. 1. The new dress of Lucille is very elegant.

2. This is the toilet of the men, and that is the toilet of the women.

2.8. EXERCISES. 3. The classroom of those students is upstairs.

4. The meeting of the students is very important.

5. The wife of James is a nurse.

6. The bicycle of the brother of Alice is good.

7. The house of Jenny and Pat is far away.

8. The tail of that dog is cute.

9. I’m the mother of Jason and Sam.

10. The office of my boss isn’t very big.

TRANSLATE 1. La reuni´on de alumnos es a las 7:00, ¿verdad?

2. Las pruebas de los alumnos de Mr. Collins est´an muy buenas, ¿cierto?

3. Esa es la oficina del jefe de ellas.

4. Mi diccionario est´a al lado del de Jim.

5. ¿Cu´ando es el cumplea˜ nos de tu pap´a?

19

20

UNIT 2. 6. ¿C´omo se llama tu t´ıo?

7. ¿Alo? ¿D´onde est´as? -Estamos donde Felipe.

8. ¿C´omo se llama el hermano de la amiga de tu polola?

9. El hermano de Michael Jackson no es blanco, ¿verdad?

10. El diario del domingo es interesante y entretenido, ¿cierto?

AVOID REPETITION. REPHRASE USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 1. These shoes are my shoes.

2. Those pencils aren’t her pencils.

3. These notes aren’t your notes. Where are my notes?

4. Their project is very good, but your project is excellent, isn’t it?

5. These gloves aren’t my gloves. Are they your gloves?

6. Her brother is sixteen. How old is your brother?

7. His house is near here. My house is far. What about your house?

8. John’s dad is an accountant. What’s your dad?

2.8. EXERCISES.

21

WRITE WHOSE QUESTIONS. 1.

? That jacket is mine. ?

2. This is my brother’s car. 3.

? This new computer is Peter’s. ?

4. Katty’s toys are under her bed. 5.

? This dictionary is yours.

6.

? That’s the dog’s ball. ?

7. They are the teacher’s documents.

?

8. These potato chips are ours. TRANSLATE 1. Mi oficina queda cerca del centro. ¿A qu´e distancia queda la tuya?

La m´ıa queda a media hora en metro.

2. Hay unos apuntes debajo de la mesa. ¿De qui´en son? ¿Son tuyos?

No. Son de Jackie.

3. ¿Por qu´e est´as tan p´alida? ¿Tienes fr´ıo?

No, me da miedo la oscuridad.

22

UNIT 2. 4. Este sandwich est´a exquisito. ¿C´omo est´a el tuyo John? ¿Jenny, no tienes hambre?

5. La casa de la esquina es super vieja; pero es interesante, ¿no?

6. ¿Cu´anto valen esos C.Ds? No son muy caros, ¿verdad?

No mucho. Valen s´olo $15.

Unit 3

3.1

Some regular verbs.

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

answer ask call close cook cry enjoy finish hate invite laugh learn like listen live look love marry sb. miss need open play pronounce rain snow show smell

answered asked called closed cooked cried enjoyed finished hated invited laughed learned/learnt liked listened lived looked loved married missed needed opened played pronounced rained snowed showed smelled

answered asked called closed cooked cried enjoyed finished hated invited laughed learn/learnt liked listened lived looked loved married missed needed opened played pronounced rained snowed showed smelled

23

Spanish : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

contestar, responder preguntar, pedir llamar cerrar cocinar llorar disfrutar terminar odiar,disgustar invitar reir aprender gustar escuchar vivir mirar amar, encantar casarse con alguien echar de menos, extra˜ nar, perder necesitar abrir jugar, tocar (piano) pronunciar llover nevar mostrar oler

24

UNIT 3.

3.2

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

smile start stay study talk taste translate travel type use visit wait walk wash work

smiled started stayed studied talked tasted translated traveled typed used visited waited walked washed worked

smiled started stayed studied talked tasted translated traveled typed used visited waited walked washed worked

Spanish : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

sonreir comenzar permanecer, quedarse estudiar conversar gustar, tener gusto traducir viajar escribir a m´aquina usar, utilizar visitar esperar caminar lavar trabajar

Some irregular verbs.

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

be begin bring buy come cut do dream drink drive eat fall feel get go have hear know leave lose make

was/were began brought bought came cut did dreamt/dreamed drank drove ate fell felt got went had heard knew left lost made

been begun brought bought come cut done dreamt/dreamed drunk driven eaten fallen felt got/gotten gono had heard known left lost made

Spanish : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

ser, estar comenzar traer comprar venir cortar hacer so˜ nar beber conducir, manejar comer caer sentir obtener, conseguir (entre otros) ir tener, servirse oir saber, conocer irse, dejar, abandonar perder hacer, confeccionar

3.3. VERBS + PREPOSITIONS.

3.3

25

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

meet pay read ring run see sell sit sleep speak stand swim take teach wake up wear write

met met paid paid read read rang rung ran run saw seen sold sold sat sat slept slept spoke spoken stood stood swam swum took taken taught taught woke up waken up wore worn wrote written

Spanish : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

conocer, reunirse pagar leer sonar (tel´efono, timbre) correr ver vender sentarse dormir hablar pararse nadar tomar ense˜ nar despertar vestir, usar escribir

Verbs + Prepositions.

NOTE

:

sth sb

= something = somebody

listen to sb/sth wait for sth/sb laugh at sth/sb talk to sb talk about sb/sth look at sth/sb look for sth/sb look after sb/sth ask for sth ask sb for sth think about-of sth/sb shout at sb

: : : : : : : : : : : :

escuchar a alguien/algo esperar algo/a alguien reirse de hablar con hablar de/acerca de mirar algo/alguien buscar cuidar pedir algo pedirle algo a alguien pensar en gritarle a

26

UNIT 3.

3.4

Verbs without Preposition. visit sb/sth : invite sb : call sb : ask sb : help sb : tell sb :

3.5

visitar invitar a alguien llamar preguntar a alguien ayudar a alguien contar a alguien

Present Continuos. TO BE + ING

It is used to express an action that takes place in the moment of speaking. Examples:

3.6

We are studying English now. The students aren’t watching T.V. now

Exercises.

TRANSFORM INTO NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE: 1. That girl is eating a big ham and cheese sandwich.

2. The new student is working very hard.

3. The children are playing soccer.

4. We’re listening to the radio.

5. It is raining very hard.

3.6. EXERCISES.

27

6. She is wearing a yellow jacket.

COMPLETE WITH THE VERB IN -ING 1. The children are

(have) lunch. (pay) attention.

2. The students are 3. Bob is too. 4. I’m

(live) in Los Angeles and he is

(study) there

(cook) my lunch. What are you

(do)?

5. The dog is

(run) and

6. We aren’t (work) now.

(listen) to music at the moment. We are

7. David is

(write) a letter to his girlfriend Terri.

8. Hurry up ! The train is 9. Those girls are

(leave). (wait) for the bus.

WHAT’S HAPPENING AT THE MOMENT? 1. We – read – the newspaper.

2. I – learn – English.

3. My classmates – watch– TV.

4. We – do – exercises in class.

5. Our teacher – drink – coffee.

6. It– rain – in the south.

(play) with the boys.

28

UNIT 3. 7. I – practise – my pronunciation.

8. We – write – in our notebooks.

COMPLETE WITH THE ING FORM OF ONE OF THE VERBS GIVEN: TAKE-BUILD-GET UP-RAIN-COME-HAVE-WEAR-COOK-STAND 1. (a) They

a new hotel downtown, aren’t they?

(b) You

on my foot.

(c) Oh, I’m sorry. a delicious cake.

2. Mary is in the kitchen. She 3. Hurry up! The bus

.

4. My sister

breakfast, my brother

a shower and I’m .

5. They .

raincoats and umbrellas because it

WRITE THE QUESTION. 1.

(you – watch television?) No, I’m not. I’m cooking in the kitchen. (Mrs. Kent’s children – play?)

2. No, they aren’t. They are asleep. 3.

(What – you – do?) I’m preparing a report.

4.

(that clock – work?) No, it isn’t. It’s broken.

5.

(Why – you – run?) Because I’m in a hurry.

6.

(What – Rod – do?) He’s swimming in the sea.

7.

(Why – you – cry?) Because this movie is very sad.

3.6. EXERCISES.

29 (Whose shoes – Penny – wear?)

8. She’s wearing Annie’s. 9.

(What – he – read?) He’s reading East of Eden. (Who – Paul – wait for – at – the

10. corner?) He is waiting for his fianc`ee.

GIVE A SHORT AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE ANSWER AND ADD INFORMATION USING THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF TO BE. 1. Are you feeling well?

2. Is it raining?

3. Are we all watching television?

4. Is your teacher singing?

5. Are you eating?

6. Is your classmate laughing?

7. Is the sun shinning?

8. Am I wearing yellow shoes?

9. Is the secretary typing a paper?

10. Are the girls going out tonight?

30

UNIT 3.

TRANSLATE 1. (a) ¿Qu´e est´an haciendo aqu´ı?

(b) Estamos esperando a nuestras compa˜ neras.

2. (a) ¿A d´onde vas?

(b) Voy para arriba, porque la biblioteca est´a en el cuarto piso.

3. (a) ¿Qu´e est´a comiendo tu hermano?

(b) Es´a comiendo pollo con papas fritas.

4. (a) Profe, ¿El ejercicio de qui´en est´a revisando?

(b) Estoy revisando el suyo y est´a muy bueno.

5. (a) ¿D´onde est´a tu perrito?

(b) Est´a en el parque muy contento porque est´a jugando con los ni˜ nos.

6. (a) ¿Qu´e est´a escribiendo la profesora en el pizarr´on?

(b) Est´a escribiendo las respuestas correctas.

7. (a) Esos ni˜ nos est´an celebrando el cumplea˜ nos de Christian, ¿verdad?

(b) S´ı, y lo est´an pasando super bien.

3.6. EXERCISES. 8. (a) ¿Por qu´e est´as usando bufanda? No hace fr´ıo.

(b) ¿No? bueno, yo tengo fr´ıo.

31

32

UNIT 3.

Unit 4

4.1

The simple present. Affirmative

S I

(F.A.) always

present do

complement my work

sing

very well

watches

television

works

in a restaurant

rains

a lot in that city

call

them up

attend

classes on Saturday

they

live

far from here

infinitive

complerment

I

auxiliary do/does not don’t (do not)

work

on Saturday

you

don’t

need

an umbrella

he

doesn’t (does not)

have

much common sense

she

doesn’t

like

that kind of music

It

doesn’t

rain

much

we

don’t usually

listen

to jerk conversation

you

don’t

come

on foot

they

don’t

have

any interest, do they?

you he

never

she It

usually

we you

negative

s

seldom

33

34

UNIT 4. interrogative

4.2

Q.W.

auxililary do/does do

s

infinitive

complement

I

need

a dictionary?

do

you

like

sugar in your tea?

does

he

have

any brothers?

does

she

live

alone?

does

it

hurt?

do

we

have

a hammer at homer?

do

they

play

soccer well?

Where

do

you

spend

your vacation?

Why

does

she always

arrive

late?

How much

do

these shoes

cost?

Where

does

their sister

work?

Who

do

they

live with?

Short answers and tags.

Examples:

Do you like bananas? Yes, I do. Does she play tennis? No, she doesn’t. Does she buy the paper everyday? Yes, she does. Do the girls cook? No, they don’t. Their mother does.

• Those students don’t work very hard, do they? • Their father doesn’t like pop music, does he? • Mary doesn’t have a car, does she? • You live in an appartment, don’t you? • She dances very well, doesn’t she? • That exercise has a lot of mistakes, doesn’t it?

4.3. FRECUENCY ADVERBS, EXPRESSIONS AND OTHER TIME EXPRESSIONS. 35

4.3

Frecuency adverbs, expressions and other time expressions. always almost always very often often usually frequently generally sometimes seldom rarely hardly ever almost never never

: : : : : : : : : : : : :

siempre casi siempre muy a menudo, muy seguido a menudo, seguido usualmente frecuentemente, con frecuencia generalmente algunas veces, a veces rara vez, no muy seguido rara vez, no muy seguido casi nunca casi nunca nunca

  day      week every year    Saturday    summer

once a week twice a month three times a day every toher day from nine to four on Monday(s) on weekends in (the) summer

Still:

:

: : : : : : : :

  los d´ıas       las semanas todos los a˜ nos    los sabados     los veranos

una vez a la semana dos veces al mes tres veces al d´ıa d´ıa por medio de nueve a cuatro el (los) lunes los fines de semana en el verano

todav´ıa, a´ un.

• She still loves him. • We still live in that house. • Sam still works for that company, doesn’t he?

36

UNIT 4. Not . . . anymore:

ya no, no m´ as.

• She doesn’t love him anymore. • We don’t live in that house anymore. • Sam doesn’t work for that company anymore, does he?

4.4

Questions to ask about frequency.

How often . . . ?:

¿Con qu´ e frecuencia? o ¿Cada cu´ anto tiempo?

• How often do they go to the cinema? They go there twice a week. • How often does their grandmother visit them? She seldom visits them because she lives far away. • How often do you have tests? We have tests every two weeks. . . . ever. . . ?:

¿Alguna vez?

• Do you ever watch television? Yes, I do. I watch TV everyday. • Does your boss ever arrive late? No, he doesn’t. He never arrives late. • Does their friend ever cook? No, she doesn’t. She always eats fast food.

4.5

Exercises.

Read the following and translate it orally, into Spanish. Mr. Rogers is a taxi driver. He works long hours. He generally gets up at six or six thirty in the morning; then he has a shower, he drinks a cup of coffee and he leaves home at about seven. He doesn’t get back home until eight thirty in the evening. He drives long hours, doesn’t he?. Fortunately, he enjoys his job very much and he gets enough money. He has two boys. They are eight and ten. They attend school in the morning and they go home for lunch. After lunch, they take a rest and then they do their homework. They are very good students and they always get very good grades. Their mother helps them with their duties and then the boys see some cartoons, but Mrs. Rogers doesn’t let them watch television after seven, because she doesn’t like the programs that they show at that time. She thinks that they aren’t good for children. She is right, isn’t she?

4.5. EXERCISES.

37

What tense did we use to describe personal opinions, likes, routine and daily activities?

Write complete AFFIRMATIVE sentences using the information given. Example: Mandy–come–school–bus Mandy comes to school by bus.

1. I–like–cinema.

2. They–watch–television–night.

3. Tommy–play–soccer–friends.

4. He and I–listen–radio–everyday.

5. We–cut–grass–twice a month.

6. He–like–read–science fiction–books.

7. I–want–piece–that pie.

Fill in with DO or DOES.

1. (a) (b) Nick 2. (a) (b) No, they 3.

Nick and Jenny get up early? , but Jenny lessons start at two here? n’t. you like to live in the city?

n’t.

38

UNIT 4. n’t like dogs,

4. The little girl 5. His children 6. (a)

n’t watch movies after seven,

and they play very well. n’t teach French. What language

7. Their mother teach? 8. You’re wrong. Peanuts

n’t grow in trees. n’t have any red pen because I

9. This pen isn’t mine. I not like them.

Their mother work in a bank?

(b) No, She

n’t.

(a) Where

she work?

(b) Yes, I

. She works in a hospital.

Change the following sentences into negative. 1. Tom attends classes on Saturday.

2. I write postcards very often.

3. Samantha helps her classmates with work.

4. My brother’s daughter likes to eat vegetables.

5. I have money.

6. He gets up at six on Saturday morning.

7. They live near here.

they?

his sons play tennis?

(b) Yes, they

10. (a)

she?

you know?

she

4.5. EXERCISES.

39

8. Their sister has three children.

Write complete interrogative sentences. 1. He–lives–parents. ? 2. You–study–alone. ? 3. They–do–homework–everyday. ? 4. What time–you–have–lunch–weekdays? ? 5. When–you–have–another–test? ? 6. How far–he–live–here? ? 7. How many–apples–that–lady–want? ? 8. Whose–telephone number–you–need? ? 9. How much–water–you–drink–daily? ? 10. Where–this bus–stop? ? 11. How often–snow–town? ? Answer these questions with a short answer and another containing additional information.

40

UNIT 4. 1. Do you like romantic movies?

2. Does your teacher give you much homework?

3. Do you study everyday?

4. Does this building have four floors?

5. Do you go home by subway?

6. Do you want some cherries?

Answer these questions. Give short or complete answers as it corresponds. 1. Where do you live?

2. Do you like to go shopping?

3. How often do you go to the movies?

4. Does it rain much in your hometown?

5. Do you play any sports on weekends?

6. What time do you get up on weekdays?

7. Do you have any brothers or sisters?

4.5. EXERCISES.

41

8. How many days a week do you attend English classes?

9. Do you have a dictionary?

10. How do you come to the university?

11. What time does your first class begin?

12. Why do you want to learn English?

13. Do you ever try to practice English with your classmates?

Choose one of the verbs to complete sentences in the Simple Present, affirmative or negative. You may use the verb more than once. work – cost – boil – like – cook – open – be – have – teach – close – speak – wash – drive – go – sell – eat 1. She 2. Banks countries. 3. We usually 4. He 5. They 6. My friend 7. Those T–shirts only three dollars. 8. Water 9. He 10. Mr. Fit

very clever. She

three languages.

at nine in the morning and they

at two in some

lunch at one thirty or two. films very much and he often

to the cinema.

newspapers in that stand, don’t they? a nurse. She

in a hospital for children.

on sale and they are very inexpensive. They at 100◦ C. to eat fruit. He always home on foot, doesn’t he?

two or three units a day.

42

UNIT 4. a twin sister, don’t you?

11. You 12. He

married,

13. Their father

he? Maths and he

a very good teacher.

Write the corresponding question. 1. No, their elder brother doesn’t work in a bank. 2. We have only one test a month. 3. The train leaves at 6:00 o’clock. 4. No, Sasha and Melissa never eat meat. 5. They go to the theater twice a year. 6. Samantha usually does her homework in the evening.

Translate into English. Be careful with the tenses. 1. (a) ¿Qu´e hace tu hermana? ¿Trabaja o estudia?

(b) Trabaja en una tienda en las tardes y estudia en las ma˜ nanas.

2. (a) ¿Cu´antos hijos tiene la Sra. Allen?

(b) Tiene dos, creo.

4.5. EXERCISES.

43

(a) Est´as equivocada, porque tiene tres y est´a esperando el cuarto.

3. (a) ¿Qu´e haces los fines de semana? ¿Te quedas en la casa o sales con tus amigos?

(b) Los s´abados salgo y los domingos me quedo en casa con mi familia. Almorzamos juntos y eso me gusta mucho, porque en la semana todos estamos ocupados y apurados y no tenemos mucho tiempo para conversar.

4. (a) ¿Qu´e est´as haciendo aqu´ı?

(b) Estoy haciendo mis tareas. ¿Quieres trabajar conmigo?

44

UNIT 4. (a) Si, pero dime, ¿siempre las haces en la cafeter´ıa? Yo no puedo trabajar aqu´ı porque hay mucho ruido.

(b) Yo no tengo problemas con eso, pero si quieres podemos trabajar en la sala.

(a) Buena idea. Trabajemos all´a.

Tell us something about your and your family’s daily activities, likes, dislikes and/or opinions.

Unit 5

5.1

Imperatives.

Commands, orders, instructions: infinitive, will you? Come and sit down, please. Stay in the house, will you? Get up. Mix the butter with the sugar. Be quiet, will you?

Don’t Don’t Don’t Don’t Don’t Don’t

+ infinitive. chew gum in class. make noise, will you? shout at me, will you? walk. be lazy.

Invitations, suggestions: Let’s Let’s Let’s Let’s

5.2

+ infinitive. go, shall we? study together. have lunch at two.

Let’s Let’s Let’s Let’s

not not not not

Complement/object pronouns. me you him her it us you them

: : : : : : : :

me, m´ı. te, t´ı, le, usted. le, ´el. le, ella lo, el, la. nos, nosotros. les, ustedes, las, los. les, ellos.

Examples: • I’m looking at her. • Listen to me, please. 45

+infinitive. go by subway. buy that material. eat here, shall we?

46

UNIT 5. • Our friend is waiting for us upstairs. • This present is for him.

5.3

Exercises.

Replace the underlined word by the corresponding complement pronoun:

1. Luke and Derby are busy. The manager is talking to Luke and Derby.

2. Our teacher is explaining the lesson and we’re listening to the teacher.

3. We’re checking our exercises. Stan is writing the exercises on the board.

4. The whiteboard is on the wall. Bill is standing in front of the whiteboard.

5. Grandmother’s with her grandchildren and she is telling the grandchildren some tales.

6. Are they staying with you and your family?.

7. Is this delicious pizza for you and me?

8. Jack isn’t here. Are you waiting for Jack?

9. Your homework is excellent. Why are you doing your homework again?

10. These pictures are wonderful. Show these pictures to your friends.

Translate:

5.3. EXERCISES. 1. Seque al sol. 2. No me grites. 3. Coma poca sal. 4. Ap´ urense, ¿quieren? 5. Hierva por quince minutos. 6. No planche. 7. Haz todas las tareas. 8. No coma en la sala. 9. Ay´ udame con estas bolsas, ¿ya? 10. Lleguen temprano, ¿ya? 11. Ven para arriba. 12. Pr´estame tu l´apiz rojo, ¿ya? 13. D´emosles sus notas. 14. ¿Salgamos hoy? ¿ya? 15. ¿Invitemos a Paul? ¿ya? 16. No hagamos este ejercicio. 17. No comamos despu´es de las siete, ¿ya? 18. Llamemos a Jim. 19. Visit´emoslas el domingo. 20. Compr´emosle un vestido. 21. No veamos televisi´on. 22. ¿Escuchemos radio? ¿ya? 23. Esper´emosla aqu´ı. 24. No arrendemos este video.

47

48

UNIT 5.

Suggest something using an imperative. 1. (a) It’s raining. (b) 2. (a) I’m hungry. (b) 3. (a) Mary’s alone. (b) 4. (a) I’m not feeling well. (b) 5. (a) It’s too hot in here. (b) 6. (a) This exercise is very difficult. (b) 7. (a) My car isn’t working well. (b)

Do you know how to cook?. Write your favorite receipe.

Unit 6 Simple Past INTERROGATIVE:

(QW)+DID+ S + INFINITIVE + C?

AFFIRMATIVE:

S+Verb in Past + C.

NEGATIVE:

S+ DID NOT + INFINITIVE + C.

Examples: • Did you have lunch? Yes, Idid. Ihad lunch at two o‘clock. • Where did you go last night? We went to the movies. • Did she call her mother? No, she didn’t. • Sarah and Tom left home early today, didn’t they? Remember that verb BE does not use auxiliaries but its own conjugated forms I? He? She? It?

Was

You? We? They?

Were

Examples: A:Were you at the lecture? B: Yes, I was. Where were you? A: I wasn’tthere because I was very busy? 49

50

UNIT 6.

Time expressions:

LAST

                                  

night week month year summer Tuesday time term winter

. . . ago = hace, atr´as. Examples: • a week ago = hace una semana. • long time ago = largo tiempo atr´as. • months ago = hace meses, meses atr´as.

Exercises: 1. Transform into negative: (a) She studied a lot for that test.

(b) He wrote that wonderful book.

(c) He was a good writer.

(d) The little girl received a lot of gifts on her birthday.

(e) I did my homework better this time.

51 2. Transform into interrogative. (a) He tried to understand the message.

(b) The maid opened the door.

(c) David climbed up the mountain.

(d) She left her purse on the bus.

(e) Jack’s mother sent him to bed.

3. Ask the corresponding question. (a) She put all the sandwiches on the table. (b) Yes, all of us came on time. (c) We had little time to do the exercises. (d) Patsy and Linda arrived at 8:10 today. (e) She answered only one question. (f) Columbus discovered America more than five hundred years ago. (g) He bought a delicious red wine. (h) The C.D. cost only five dollars. (i) We finished our supper half an hour ago.

52

UNIT 6. 4. Translate: (a) ¿Qu´e te pas´o la clase pasada? No te v´ı.

(b) No pude venir porque tuve mucho que hacer en la oficina y mi jefe no estaba. Era muy tarde cuando termin´e mi trabajo. ¿Hicieron muchos ejercicios?

(c) S´ı, hicimos varios? Te los presto?

(d) S´ı por favor. ¿Me podr´ıas prestar tu cuaderno hasta el martes?

(e) No estuviste el domingo en tu casa, ¿verdad?

(f) No, fuimos fuera de Santiago con unos amigos.Lo pasamos muy bien.El tiempo estuvo muy bueno.

(g) ¿Qu´e m´as hicieron?

(h) Caminamos harto, jugamos futbol, y preparamos un asado.Volvimos tarde en la noche. ¿Y t´ u que hiciste?

(i) Fu´ı al cine con una amiga y aunque la pel´ıcula era bien buena, a ella no le gust´o mucho. Me fu´ı a la casa temprano y v´ı televisi´on. Un poco fome, ¿verdad?

53 5. Answer these questions with short or complete answers as it corresponds. (a) Where were you born?

(b) What time did you get up today?

(c) What did you have for breakfast?

(d) How did you get from your house to this place today?

(e) How long did you have to wait for the bus/ subway etc.?

(f) Were you a good student at school? Did you study hard?

(g) What did you do yesterday after class?

(h) How was the weather last weekend?

54

UNIT 6.

Write five lines telling us about your last vacation, weekend, trip or any other past event.

Unit 7

7.1

The Past Continuous

. S

WAS/WERE

They She Were What was

7.2

were wasn’t you he

(not)VERB+ING studying cooking sleeping? doing?

Exercises.

Ask the corresponding questions. 1. The policemen were talking to the driver. 2. We were standing there for an hour or more. 3. The Joneses were living abroad for three months. 4. I was working in a bank in 1992. 5. We were having lunch at that time. 6. He was sleeping at that hour because he was really tired. 55

56

UNIT 7. 7. Y was wearing my sister’s jacket at the conference. 8. Peter was telling me why he didn’t come last class. 9. No, I’m sorry. I wasn’t listening to you.

10. Her mother was cleaning her shoes this morning.

7.3

Review of other tenses.

Fill in with am, is, are, was, were, will, do, does, did, let’s, shall. 1.

your father sleeping at that time?

2.

you here at 7:00 this morning?

3. Pass me the salt, 4. Look! Who 5. I 6. It

you? that pretty girl over there?

planning to have a party next Saturday. hot in here.

7. When

you born?

8. What

your favorite music?

9. 10. I ask her. 11. What

I right? – Sorry, I

open the window?

not think so.

not know about the test. Look! The teacher

coming there.

she study?

12. Where

your brother work?

13. When

you last go to the beach?

14.

you want to come?

you call me last night? I

at home.

7.4. EXERCISES:

7.4

57

Exercises:

Choose between am-is-are-was-were (aff. or neg.) to complete the conversation. 1. (a) Please, be quiet. I the way, where (b) It

trying to do this homework and it the dictionary?

here a while ago, but Jane

2. (a) What happened here? There but now there any. (b) I good!

sorry, Claire, but

hard. By

using it now. a lot of canapes on this tray a moment ago,

very hungry and those canapes

so

(a) Would you like some more? very hungry anymore. But empty.

there some more

(a) Certainly Bob. I’ll bring you some more in a minute.

one bottle enough?

(b) No, thanks. I whisky? My glass

7.5

Translate into correct English:

1. El u ´ltimo gran terremoto fue en marzo de 1985, ¿verdad?

2. Pedro estaba en el tel´efono, te estaba esperando. Deber´ıas apurarte porque dijo que estaba en un tel´efono p´ ublico.

3. Estuve haciendo mis compras esta ma˜ nana. Hab´ıa unas botas en liquidaci´on pero no eran mi talla . Lo sent´ı mucho porque hace fr´ıo y las necesito.

4. Vi a Freddy como a las tres de la ma˜ nana. Ven´ıa de una fiesta, parece, porque iba bailando s´olo por la calle. Estaba de muy buen humor, pero los vecinos no, porque ten´ıamos mucho sue˜ no y no pudimos dormir m´as con sus cantos.

58

UNIT 7. 5. ¿Por qu´e estuviste ausente ayer?

6. Cuando llegu´e a mi casa anoche, me encontr´e sola. El perro dorm´ıa frente a la chimenea y el gato jugaba con una pelotita en en rinc´on. Mis padres no estaban porque andaban en el supemercado haciendo compras.

7.6

Complete the story with the past tense of the verbs in brackets.

Last year, my husband and I (go)went to a friend’s wedding in Italy. We (drive) Sorrento and then, after the wedding we (do) some photographs. It (be)

some sightseeing and we (take)

quite hot and we (decide) to go to the beach outside the

into our swimsuits and (leave)

city.We(change)

to

cameras in the car. We (spend)

our clothes, passports and

the day on the beach. Then we (go)

back to

the car at four o’clock but we couldn’t find the car!. We (have) nothing except our swimsuits and little money. We ( buy) station. We (tell)

some cheap clothes and (go)

the police what had happened. The (find)

to the police the car two

days later quite near the beach. Our passports, clothes and even our camewras (be) in the car . There (be) (like)

7.7

a note that (read)

“Thanks for the ride . We

your car very much. Ciao”

There Be: Hay Countable and uncountable nouns

• Countable nouns: Things we can count. We can make them plural. Boy, girl, book, apples, picture, flower, etc.

7.7. THERE BE: HAY

59

Ex.: Two boys, five oranges, some girls, many people. • Uncountable nouns: Things we cannot count. They have no plural. They are always singular. Water, oil, beer, sugar, fish, chicken, music, information, bread, advice, information, furniture, luggage, baggage, news, permission, traffic, trouble, work, homework, weather, progress, chaos, hair, fish, fruit, paper, There is (isn’t) There are (aren’t)

= singular = plural

(There was/ has been/ had been etc.) (There were/ have been/ etc)

We use quantifiers to specify quantities. Enough = suficiente Several = varios Some = algunos, algo de Any

=

Ex.: There is enough time. Ex.: There are several students in the cafeteria. Ex.: There are some exercises in that book. There is some bread in that bag. ¿Alg´ un? ¿Alguno? ¿Algo? Ex.: Is there any pet in your house? Is there any fruit for desert? Are there any people on the second floor?

NOTE: Please note that the words people (gente), vegetables (verdura), and clothes (ropa) are plurals in English. Not any

=

ning´ un, ninguna, nada de.

No

=

ning´ un, nada de:

Ex. There is not any homework for tomorrow There are not any fresh vegetables. Ex.: There is no money. There are no free seats.

Much (mucho, mucha) and little (/poco, poca) with uncountable nouns. Ex.: There isn’t much time. There’s little milk in the fridge. Many (muchos, muchas) Few (pocos, pocas). With countable nouns. Ex.: There are many new students this year. There are few girls in that class. A lot (of ) : muchos, muchas, mucho, mucha, un mont´on de, harto etc. Countable and uncountable nouns. Ex.: There’s a lot of pollution in Santiago. There are a lot of cars. HOW MUCH......? HOW MANY......?

¿Cu´anto, cu´anta....? ¿Cu´antos, cu´antas?

How much money is there? How many boys are there in your class?

60

UNIT 7.

7.8

Exercises

1. Fill in with: (a) MUCH or MANY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

people beer students pens information

(b) FEW or LITTLE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

coffee bananas transportation time visitors

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2. Transform into interrogative and negative. Example

:

There’s a lot of fruit in the refrigerator: Is there any fruit . . . ? There isn’t any fruit . . . or There is no fruit . . .

(a) There are a lot of people on that train.

(b) There is a lot of information in the paper today.

(c) There is a lot of bread in the bag.

(d) There are a lot of students in class.

3. Make the corresponding question: (a) There is only one banana.

furniture news questions clothes newspapers

money doubts buses homework oranges.

7.8. EXERCISES (b) There are around three bottles of milk

(c) There are many students in class today.

(d) There is a kilo of meat in the refrigerator.

(e) There is no butter.

4. Translate: (a) No tengo tiempo. Hay demasiadas cosas que hacer para la pr´oxima semana.

(b) Hay s´olo una prueba. No tenemos que estudiar mucho.

(c)

i. ¿Cu´antas personas hay en la sala? ii. Hay muy pocas. ¿Habr´a clases?

(d) Va a haber una gran fiesta en la FECH el pr´oximo mes. ¿Sabes algo?

(e) Hay muy poco pan. Tenemos que comprar. ¿Vamos al super mercado?

(f) Quiero hacer un tutti fruti. ¿Cu´anta fruta hay? Parece que no hay mucha.

(g) Hubo mucha gente en la fiesta el s´abado pasado. Hab´ıa como 40 personas.

(h) Siempre ha habido muchos accidentes en feriados largos.

61

62

UNIT 7.

Unit 8

8.1

Modals Can could May Might Must Mustn’t Shall Should Needn’t

: : : : : : : : :

Know how to,strong possibility,capacity. Requests, past of can. Permission, probability. Remote probability. Obligation, deduction, strong advice. Prohibition. Suggestion, invitation. Advice, suggestion. Absence of obligation or necessity.

Examples: Our brother can swim very well. She can’t run very fast, Can she? May I open the window? I’m sorry, but you may not go out tonoight. Could you do me a favour? I’m not very sure, but there mightnot be classes next week. You must bring your homework next class. Look at his car! It must cost a fortune. Students mustn’t cheat on exams. Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I bring you a cup of coffee? You look sick. You should see a doctor. Girls shouldn’t go out alone at night. It’s very dangerous. You needn’t bring anything for the party. We have enough of everything.

63

64

UNIT 8.

8.2

Excercises.

Write three things that you can do and three things you can’t do. 1 2 3

1 2 3 Turn the following imperatives into polite requests using could. 1. Turn on the air conditioner.

2. Repeat the question, please.

3. Tell me your name.

4. Spell that word.

5. Bring us some more coffee.

Ask polite-formal questions in the following situations. 1. You’re in class. You’re hot. You want to open the window.

2. You’re at the bank. Your pen isn’t working. You want to use the cashier’s pen.

8.2. EXCERCISES.

65

3. You’re in a meeting. You want to give your opinion.

4. The room is a little dark. You want to turn on the light.

5. You call your friend but he isn’t in. You want to leave a message.

Suggest something asking the other person’s (s’)opinion. 1. You’re in class. It’s very noisy outside and the door is open.

2. You’re at your friend’s house and you want to help her wash the dishes.

3. You’re in class. Your teacher is coughing. You offer to bring a glass of water.

4. You and your friends are hungry. You think that hot-dogs are delicious and easy to make.

Read the different situations and ask a polite question for each using an appropriate modal: can, could, may, shall,must, mustn’t,should etc. 1. You’re at a friend’s house. There are some sandwiches on a tray. You want one.

2. You’re at a restaurant. You want the bill.

3. You’re at the train station. You want to help a lady with her heavy suitcase.

4. You want to know the time. There are some boys playing near you.

5. You’re at a friend’s house. The bell is ringing. He is busy.You want to help.

66

UNIT 8. 6. You have a big trouble. Ask a friend for advice.

7. Your friend is drinking a lot. He is driving a car. That bothers you.

8. You and your family are planning a picnic. Suggest something to take.

9. Your classmate has an appointment. He/she is late. Suggest soemthing.

10. A little boy is playing with a knife. Say something to him.

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal. 1. I’m afraid that you

smoke here.

2.

I bring you some more tea?

3.

I have one of those cookies?

4. Henry isn’t an expert, but I’m sure he 5. Excuse me, sir/madam. 6. People 7. People

10.

enter that club if they are not members. play with fire. sit in this chair if you want. we go to the cafeteria to have some coffee?

11. If you don’t feel well, you

8.3

you repeat the last sentence?

drive when the drink.

8. Children 9. You

help you with your computer.

smoke less.

Exercises.

Translate into English. 1. ¿Profesor, me podr´ıa explicar este ejercicio de nuevo? No lo puedo entender.

8.3. EXERCISES. 2. ¿Perd´on se˜ nor, puedo dejar mi abrigo aqu´ı?

3. El tel´efono est´a sonando, ¿lo contesto?

4. El hermano chico de Annie no puede decir la hora, porque s´olo tiene 4 a˜ nos.

5. Ma˜ nana es el cumplea˜ nos de Tom, ¿Compr´emosle un regalo?

6. ¿Debo decirle toda la verdad? Aunque creo que no es necesario hacerlo.

Express these sentences using NEEDN’T. Example: It isn’t compulsory (or necessary) for you to marry an American to learn English. You needn’t marry an American to learn English. 1. It isn’t compulsory for us to be here until 10:00 o’clock.

2. It isn’t necessary for you to arrive two hours before class.

3. It isn’t compulsory for Frank and Betty to invite them every week-end.

4. It isn’t necessary for you to wear formal clothes for that class.

5. It isn’t compulsory for students to have fun in class all the time.

6. It isn’t necessary for him to cut his hair for that job.

Translate.

67

68

UNIT 8. 1. (a) ¿Debo traerte el desayuno a la cama? No puedes levantarte a desayunar con nosotros en el comedor?

(b) No, no es necesario que tu lo hagas siempre, pero estoy viendo una pel´ıcula muy buena y no quiero perd´ermela. Se buena y tr´aemelo, ¿ya?

2. (a) Se˜ nor Thomson, ¿A qu´e hora deben estar listos estos informes?

(b) En realidad los necesito antes del mediod´ıa. Pero entiendo que usted debe almorzar y descansar un poco. Por lo tanto me los puede entregar a las tres. ¿Podr´ıa ser?

3. No es necesario que pagues mi entrada al cine, pero debes pagarte la tuya.

8.3. EXERCISES.

69

4. Creo que no deber´ıas salir esta noche. Debes descansar un poco ya que tienes ex´amenes toda la pr´oxima semana. Invita a Pablo. Creo que puede venir, ¿no?

70

UNIT 8.

Unit 9

9.1

Present Perfect. Statements = S+have/has (not) + Past participle + C.

Questions = Have/has + S + Past Participle. Examples: Dave Nora Dave Nora Dave Nora

: : : : : :

Have you travelled? Yes, I have been to many different countries. Really? Have you gone to China? Yes, I have visited China twice. What about India? No, I have never been to India.

Note: When we talk about a period of time, that continues up to the present, we use PRESENT PERFECT. We use PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS to say or to ask how long something has been happening . This time the action or situation began in the past and is still happening or has just stopped . Examples: It’s raining now. It began to rain two hours ago and it is still raining, so... It has been raining for two hours.

9.2

For - Since. FOR SINCE

= =

period of time. point in time when the action started.

71

72

UNIT 9.

Example: They have lived here for ten years, since 1992.

9.3

Expressions of time used with present perfect.

• Lately, recently. • Today, this month /week/year; all morning/day/ night. • Ever-never. • Always , usually, seldom etc. • Just. • Already, yet, Not yet. • For, since.

9.4

Exercises.

• Put the verbs in the sentences below into the correct tense: Simple Past or Present Perfect. 1. I

(visit) New York six months ago.

2. Hans

(never be) to England.

3. They

(just move) to a new flat.

4. Tom

(visit) Chile last January.

5. I’m afraid I 6. I 7. Goodness! I am hot. I

(do) it several times. (not be) not very well last week. (work) in the garden all morning.

8. Ellen

(live) here for the last three months.

9. They

(change) their phone number last month.

10. I

(not see) Sally since she was a little girl.

9.4. EXERCISES.

73

• You’re writing letter to friend and giving news about people you know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verbs in the correct tense: e.g. Phil/find a new job = Phil has found a new job. 1. Charles/go/ Brazil twice.

2. Jack and Jill /decide/ to get married.

3. Susan /have / a baby/ last year.

4. Alice / give up/ smoking / recently.

5. George /pass / his driving test.

6. Mary / finish/ her English course.

7. The children / grow up / a lot.

8. Little Chris / enter/ school / last March.

• Answer the questions in negative using the words in brackets. e.g. When did you last smoke? (for two years)= I haven’t smoked for two years. 1. When did it last snow? (for ages)

2. When did they last visit you? (since june)

3. When did you last play tennis? (for a long time)

74

UNIT 9. 4. When did you last eat lobster? (never).

5. When did you last go to a discoteque? (since last Friday).

6. When did the boys last go to the USA? (never).

7. When did she last write to you? (since summer).

• Make questions with the words given. e.g. You/ hear/ from George recently ? Have you heard from George recently? 1. John / call/ you lately?

2. You / see/ Paul / in the past few days?

3. Jeremy / eat / at the new restaurant / already?

4. You/ have / any tests this term?

5. Anything interesting/ happen / recently?

6. It / rain/ much this year?

• Answer the questions using FOR. 1. How long have you been studying English?

2. How long have you lived in Santiago?

9.4. EXERCISES.

75

3. How long have you known your best friend?

4. How long have the pyramids of Egypt existed?

• Answer the questions using SINCE. 1. How long have you been out of school?

2. How long has Santiago had pollution problems?

3. How long have your parents been married?

4. How long have you had English classes?

5. How long has Santiago been a Republic?

• Translate the following story. Then ask questions about it. Un equipo de televisi´on que est´a trabajando en un programa acerca del Amazonas, ha descubierto reci´en a un joven estudiante de Oxford que vive en una tribu de indios primitivos. La gente de la televisi´on lo entrevist´o para su programa. Entrevistador: Por supuesto nos sorprendi´o mucho descubrir un hombre blanco viviendo aqu´ı. Exactamente, ¿qu´e est´as haciendo? Joven: Estoy viviendo en esta aldea hace seis meses. Estoy estudiando la vida y costumbres de esta gente y voy a escribir un libro. Entrevistador: Has aprendido harto, ¿verdad? Joven: ¡S´ı! He estado compartiendo la vida diaria de ellos. He estado tambi´en en sus expediciones de caza. He participado en sus rituales y festivales, He aprendido a entender su idioma. Siento que de verdad, ellos han comenzado a confiar en mi. ¡Son gente maravillosa! Entrevistador: Y ¿Cu´anto piensas quedarte?

76

UNIT 9.

Joven: Bueno, depende de varios factores. Estoy aqu´ı desde septiembre. Planeo quedarme hasta agosto, por lo menos. A lo mejor me quedo un poco m´as. Podr´ıa ser, hasta diciembre. No se todav´ıa.

9.4. EXERCISES.

77

78

UNIT 9.

Unit 10 Future Tense 10.1

Present for the future S + They Peter We We

BE + are is are aren’t

ING going travelling meeting going

+

Complement to a concert on Friday. next month. Bill this evening? out of town next Sunday.

You say “ I’m doing something tomorrow” when you have planned to do something. Example: Ellen is seeing her doctor on Friday. (She has an appointment with her doctor)

10.2 S I He We

Be going to +

BE + GOING TO + INFINITIVE am come is (not) going to have are graduate

+ COMPLEMENT next week. classes tomorrow. in 2005.

You say “I’m going to do something tomorrow” when you have decided to do something, your intention is to do something. Examples

:

Tom and his family are going to move out next month. He is going to travel next month, isn’t he? They are going to come back soon, aren’t they? Ellen isn’t going to marry Paul, I’m sure. What are you going to do when you graduate? Are you going out next weekend? What time is the car going to be ready? 79

80

UNIT 10. FUTURE TENSE

10.3

Will

S My sister Those students She Examples

10.4

:

+

WILL (NOT) + INFINITIVE will (’ll ) visit will probably be absent will not (won’t) finish

+

I think, we’ll be back before noon. The girls will probably stay up all night. You won’t do it again, will you? Will you be here tonight?

Expressions of time Tomorrow The day after tomorrow. Next month, next year, next summer, etc. The month after next. Within a week. Within a month from now. In two years (within two years) from now... In 2005. Soon.

10.5

Exercises

What are thse people doing next Saturday? 1. Carol: play / tennis.

2. Dick: go to the cinema.

3. Barbara: meet Dave.

4. George: go fishing.

5. Ken and Chris: go to a party.

Comp. me tonight. next class. this for tomorrow.

10.5. EXERCISES

81

6. Her parents: come back from Europe.

7. I : have dinner with my parents.

Write sentences about yourself. What are you doing in the next fifteen days? Ex.: I’m staying home tonight. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Answer the following questions using the Present Continuous with future meaning. 1. What time are you coming back?

2. When are her friends arriving?

3. How are they traveling to Brazil?

4. What are you doing this evening?

5. What are you bringing to the party?

Translate: 1.

a) Recib´ı una carta en franc´es y no entiendo una palabra. ¿Qui´en sabe franc´es?

82

UNIT 10. FUTURE TENSE b) Nicole. Preg´ untale a ella. Es muy amable y estoy seguro que te ayudar´a.

a) Nicole, Podr´ıas ayudarme con esta carta.?

c) S´ı, pero tendr´as que esperarme un minuto. Estoy terminando mi trabajo.

a) No es necesario que te apures. Puedo esperar.

2.

a) ¿Por qu´e tendremos clases el s´abado?

b) ¿Qui´en te dijo eso? Nunca tenemos clases los s´abados.

a) Estuve hablando con Pablo hace un rato y ´el me dijo eso.

b) ¿Y todav´ıa le crees? No deber´ıas, porque siempre anda bromeando.

3.

a) ¿Qu´e vas a hacer en las vacaciones?

b) Son tan cortas, que creo que no voy a hacer mucho. Pensaba viajar pero me quedar´e en Santiago y dormir´e harto. ¿Y t´ u?

10.5. EXERCISES

83

a) Tengo que quedarme en Santiago porque viene un amigo de Alemania y yo lo voy a recibir en mi casa. Le voy a mostrar un poco la ciudad y quiz´as vayamos a Vi˜ na o a la nieve.

84

UNIT 10. FUTURE TENSE

Unit 11

11.1

Past perfect S + HAD ( NOT)

Examples

:

+ PAST PARTICIPLE

They had already left when I got home. Had you ever studied English before? He told me he had never seen such a horrible movie before. She hadn’t noticed that I was here.

The Past Perfect expresses an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past. Example Compare

:

Sam Sam : Sam Sam

had already left when Ann got here. First: Sam left. left before Ann got here. Second: Ann got here. left when Ann got here. First: Ann got here. left after Ann came. Second: Sam left.

Note: When after or before is used in the sentence, the past perfect is often not necessary because the time relationship is already clear.

11.2

Retelling something

When you retell something that is in the PAST TENSE, you have to change the verb to the PAST PERFECT TENSE. Example: Bill: “I was at home last night” If you tell this to a friend introducing your report in the PAST, you have to use the PAST PERFECT of the verb instead of the Simple Past. Bill told me that he had been at home last night.

11.3

Past perfect continuous HAD (NOT) BEEN + ING. 85

86

UNIT 11.

The PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS emphasizes the duration of an activity that was taking place before anorher activity or time in the past. Example: The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.

11.4

Exercises

Let’s read! The auxiliary verb HAD is usually contracted with personal pronoun in both speaking and informal writing but not often contracted with nouns and other words. Practice pronouncing contracted had int hese sentences: 1. We’d never seen it before. He’d never seen it. They’d never seen it. 2. I’d never seen it before. I’d like to see it again. 3. The children had already gone to bed when I arrived. 4. My friends had had dinner by the time I got there. 5. She’d already been in China. 6. We couldn’t cross the river, The flood had washed away the bridge. 7. You’d never done such a thing before. I’d seen = I had = past participle I’d like = I would = simple form. Simple past vs. present perfect 1. Sam ( be ) businessman. 2. I (feel)

newpaper reporter before he (become) a little better after I (take)

3. I was late. The teacher (give) to class.

the medicine.

the exams when I (get)

4. It was raining hard, but by the time the class (be) . 5. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam) they (become) (appear) . 6. I (see, never) the art museum.

a

over, the rain (stop)

the earth, but extint by the time humankind first

any of Picasso’s paintings, before I (visit)

11.4. EXERCISES

87

Pat Donnelly, an old friend of mine. 7. Yesterday at a restaurant, I (see) I (not see) her in years. At first, I (not recognize) her because she (lose) a great deal of weight. 8. In 1980, my parents (emigrate) to the United States from China. They (not travel) outside of China, and were, of course, excited by the challenge of relocating in a foreign country. Eventually they (settle) in Calthere and (grow up) ifornia. My sister and I (be born) there. to China for the first time. I (always,want) Last year I (go) to visit China and learn about my family background. It was a dream come true. Review of verb tenses In pairs or in groups, discuss the meaning of the verb forms and answer the question about the pair of sentences. 1. Dan was leaving the room when I walked in. Sam had left the room when I walked in. Who did I run into when I walked into the room? 2. When the rain stopped, Gloria was riding her bike. to work. When the rain stopped, Paul rode his bike to work. Who got wet on the way to work? 3. Ken went to the store because she was running out of food. Ann went ot he store because she had run out of food. Who is better at planning ahead? 4. Ms. Lincoln taught at this school for ten years. Mr. Sanches has taught at this school for ten years. Who is still teaching at this school? 5. When I got there, Marie had eaten. When I got there, Joe ate. Who was still hungry when I got there? 6. I looked across the street. Mr. Fox was waving at me. I looked across the street. Mrs. Cook waved at me. Who began to wave at me before I looked across the street? Present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous Use the present perfect continuous or the past perfect continuous to complete these sentences: 1. We (wait) still hasn’t arrived.

for Nancy for the last two hours, but she

88

UNIT 11. 2. We (wait) finally arrived yessterday night.

for Nancy for over three hours before she

3. It’s midnight. I (study) wonder I’m getting tired.

for five straight hours. No for five straight hours. No

4. It was midnight. I (study) wonder I was getting tired.

5. Jack suddenly realized that the teacher was asking him a question. He couldn’t answer for the last ten minutes. because he (daydream) 6. Wake up! You (sleep) up.

long enough. It’s time to get

Translate: Do not use contracted forms of had, would, is or has. 1. Me cont´o que se hab´ıa casado cuando era muy joven.

2. Dijo que hab´ıa llovido pero que no hab´ıa hecho mucho fr´ıo.

3. Nos preguntaron si hab´ıamos tenido alg´ un problema.

4. La polic´ıa inform´o que ya hab´ıa capturado a los ladrones.

5. No sab´ıa que hab´ıas aprobado el examen. No me hab´ıas contado.

6. ¡Qu´e verg¨ uenza! Apenas termin´e de hablar, me di cuenta que hab´ıa dicho puras tonter´ıas. Nada me sali´o bien ese d´ıa.

7. Estaban todos muy preocupados, porque era muy tarde y ella no llegaba.

8. El ejercicio era mucho m´as f´acil de lo que hab´ıamos pensado.

11.4. EXERCISES

89

9. Estaba dichosa, hab´ıa estado estudiando toda la ma˜ nana y por fin hab´ıa entendido la materia.

10. No sab´ıa que hab´ıas cenado ya y prepar´e algo s´ uper especial para ti.

11. ¿Alo? ¿D´onde est´as?. Te hemos estado buscando por todos lados. Qu´edate ah´ı y no te muevas, ¿ya?

12. Pablo se enoj´o mucho porque nadie le hab´ıa informado que hab´ıa prueba el martes pasado y no hab´ıa estudiado nada. ¡Que l´astima! Siempre ha sido muy preocupado.

90

UNIT 11.

Unit 12

12.1

Some, any, no, every

• Use SOME in affirmative sentences with count (algunos) and mass nouns (algo, un poco). Ex.

:

I’m going to buy some oranges. I need some money.

• Use ANY in negative sentences: ning´ un, ninguno, ninguna; nada (de). Ex.

:

I’m not going to buy any eggs. I don’t have any money.

• Use ANY in questions. Ex

:

Do you have any questions? Is there any place we can go? Do you have any time this afternoon?

• Use SOME to offer or to ask for things: Ex.

:

Would you like some coffee? Could you lend me some money?

• Use NO in affirmative sentences to give negative meaning. Ex.

:

I have no time this afternoon. (I don’t have any time this afternoon) There is no homework for tomorrow. (There isn’t any homework for tomorrow)

• ANY in affirmative sentences: cualquiera. Ex.

:

Use any pen you want. We can meet any day you like.

• EVERY is used ONLY with singular count nouns: Every Every Every Every

day. student. week. class. 91

92

UNIT 12.

Some Any No Every

PEOPLE Somebody / one Anybody / one Nobody / one Everybody / one

THINGS Something Anything Nothing Everything

PLACES Somewhere Anywhere Nowhere. Everywhere

Somebody ) Somebody is knocking at the door. Something aff. I know something about her. Somewhere It must be somewhere.  Do you know anybody there?.      neg. I don’t know anybody there. Is there anything to say?   No, there isn’t anything to say about it.    int. Did you go anywhere interesting last week? No, I didn’t go anywhere last week.

Anybody Anything Anywhere

Remember: ANY in affirmative sentences means cualquier o cualquiera Nobody Nothing Nowhere

      Aff. Sentences with   Negative meaning   

Everybody Everything Everywhere Remember:

12.2

Neg. Verb Aff. Verb

      Aff. and

I have nothing to say about it. There’s nowhere to go in town.

Everybody loves somebody, someday. Don’t worry, everything is fine. Is everything O.K.?

  interrog.    = any = no

Nobody has called me today.

Did you look evrywhere? : There is not anything new. : There is nothing new.

Exercises

Complete with NO or ANY: 1. There are 2. She can’t speak

big trees in that street. word in French.

3. Mr. Johnson is married but he has

children.

4. I’m not going to do

work today.

5.

cigarrettes yesterday.

a) I didn’t smoke

12.2. EXERCISES

93 cigarrettes at all.

b) Good ! You should smoke 6. I’m not going to answer

questions.

7. Sorry, but I have

time to talk now. friends.

8. He’s always alone. He has 9. There wasn’t 10. There is

body there. It was empty. bread. Go and buy some please.

Re-write using NO 1. He doesn’t have any money

2. There weren’t any good paintings at the exhibition, were there?

3. They don’t have any information here.

4. There wasn’t any oil in the tank.

5. We didn’t find any place to have dinner.

6. We won’t have any tests next week.

Complete using: Something, Anything, Nothing or Everything. 1.

a) Do you know b) No, I know Paul. He may know

2.

a) Be quiet! Don’t say . I just saw that tree. Let’s go and see. b) There is there. It was probably the wind.

3. You needn’t buy 4. No, There is pet.

about American Civil War? about it. I am not interested in History. But, ask , he’s always reading .

Tom, we already took care of to worry about.

moving behind

. is fine with your little

94

UNIT 12.

Complete using: Somebody, Anybody, Nobody or Everybody can do them.

1. Some exercises are so easy that 2. Mary heard was 3. Not 4.

knocking at her door, but when she opened it, there . can do it so fast.

told me what happened. And I didn’t talk to day. So I had no idea of what was going on.

that

Complete using Somewhere, Anywhere, Nowhere or Everywhere. 1. Sorry, but I can’t find Proffesor Jones out of campus.

. He is probably having lunch

2. I don’t have much money so let’s go

inexpensive.

3. The police is following the narco dealers

they go.

4. She is so hard to please. She seems to be happy

.

Complete with a suitable word with: Some, Any, No or Every. 1. Don’t worry about your mistakes. 2. I left my glasses

is perfect. but I can’t find them.

3. Why is Mike under the table? Is he looking for

?

4. Look! The refrigerator is empty. There’s 5. Do you live

in it.

near the Bells?

6. They brought the mail, but there was 7.

for you.

a) My eye hurts, I think there’s

in it.

b) Yes, it’s red but I can’t see 8.

a) Let’s have

in it. to drink. How about some orange juice?

b) No, thanks, I ’m not thirsty, I don’t want

to drink.

9. We’re looking for Professor Chimp. We can’t find him saw me.

10. I went out of the room silently.

11. Old Mr. Simpson has memory problems. He can’t remember 12. Be quiet. Don’t say

.

.

.

12.2. EXERCISES

95 about the meeting.

13. I didn’t know 14.

a) What are you going to do this afternoon? b)

. Why?

15. Does

know John’s new phone number?

16. I’m bored. I have 17.

told me.

to do.

needs friends. You can’t live alone.

18. My roommate is speaking to

on the phone.

19. I ’m so sad! My boyfriend didn’t give me 20. She is so discrete! She told

for my birthday. the secret.

Write questions that match the answers. The policeman is asking Mrs. Bell some questions about a robbery at her house the night before.

1. No, I didn’t hear anything unusual last night. 2. Yes, everybody was sleeping at 12:00. 3. No, nothing woke me up last night. 4. Yes, some phoned at around 11:55. 5. No, nobody left the house early this morning. 6. No, I don’t miss anything from the living room.

96

UNIT 12.

Translate. 1. Esa casa est´a vac´ıa. Nadie vive ah´ı.

2. Nadie se r´ıe de mis chistes. No voy a contar nunca ninguno m´as.

3.

a) ¿Con qui´en hablaste?

b) No habl´e con nadie. Todo el mundo estaba muy ocupado y nadie me puso atenci´on.

4.

a) ¿Qu´e dijiste?

b) No dije nada.

5. Parece que nadie m´as asisti´o a la charla porque no vi a nadie m´as.

6. Voy a ver si alguien me puede ayudar con esta traducci´on que nos dio la profesora para ma˜ nana. ¿D´onde est´an todos? Parece que no hay nadie por aqu´ı. A lo mejor encuentro alguien en la biblioteca.

7.

a) Alguien te llam´o por tel´efono, pero no dej´o ning´ un recado.

b) No puede ser. No le dije a nadie que iba a estar aqu´ı.

8. No encuentro mis apuntes por ning´ un lado. ¿Alguno de ustedes los tom´o?

9.

a) ¿Te traigo un poco de torta de chocolate?

12.2. EXERCISES

97

b) No gracias. No podr´ıa comer nada m´as.

10.

a) ¿Fueron a alguna parte el s´abado en la tarde?

b) Bueno, aunque mis amigos no quer´ıan salir a ninguna parte, yo les dije que deber´ıamos hacer algo ya que todos est´abamos s´olo viendo televisi´on y el d´ıa estaba muy bonito. ¿Sabes lo que hicimos? No lo vas a creer. Fuimos al zool´ogico. Lo pasamos super bien e hicimos algo diferente. Es bueno hacer cosas distintas ¿No crees?

Make the corresponding question. 1. John and Mary will stay there for a week. 2. They built that house around 100 years ago. 3. I always drive my own car. 4. I saw Paul with Mary. 5. I want any kind of cigarrettes. 6. No, You needn’t bring anything for the party. 7. I would like to go anywhere.

98

UNIT 12.

12.3

Very, so, too and such Adverbs of degree Very = muy, mucho /a. So = tan, tanto,/a. Too = demasiado /a

Quantifiers: much many litlle few

Adverb-Adjective Such = tan / tal. Very So Too

+

adjectives - adverbs

Examples: They live in a very big house Why are you so happy? Those tickets are too expensvie for me. You don’t drive very carefully, do you? Those people speak English too fast. I can’t understand them. The cake was so delicious that we ate it all. Very So Too

+

much, many, little, few + noun(s)

Examples: There were so many people that it was impossible to get into the auditorium. He had so much money that he didn’t know what to do with it. I think that we spent too much money in that. It was crazy. There were too many people there to be comfortable. Very So Too

+

much / little Used to emphasize verbs.

Examples: She loves him very much. I liked them so much that I bought them. I smoke too much, don’t I? SUCH + (adjective) + noun (s) Examples: We were having such fun that we didn’t want to come back. Who told you such nonsense? It was such an easy question, that everybody answered it easily. Where do you buy such beautiful clothes?

12.4. COMPARE SUCH AND SO.

12.4

99

Compare such and so.

He’s such a (messy) boy! He’s so messy!

Such (adj.) + noun So + adjective (without a noun)

You’re such a nice person! You’re so nice! You’re all such nice people! I had such a hard day yesterday that I fell asleep very early. My day was so hard that I fell asleep very early.

12.5

Exercises

Re-write the following using SO and TOO. Add information to make the changes meaningful. Example: He is very a) He is so old that he can hardly walk. b) He is too old to walk fast. 1. He was very nervous. a) b) 2. Sally was very sick. a) b) 3. The boys will be very tired. a) b) 4. The last test was very difficult. a)

100

UNIT 12. b)

5. They were playing the music very loudly. a) b) Complete using Very, So, Such or Too. 1. He says that he is 2.

hungry that he could eat a horse.

a) I couldn’t buy many things because the prices were b) Is that why you look

3. She met

high.

disappointed? a charming guy that she fell in love at first sight.

4. He is tired to go on working. He’s he’ll drop on the floor at any moment. 5. Those antique chairs are natelly they are

exhausted that

nice that I’d love to buy them, but unfortuexpensive. a hot weather that we had to come back to take a shower.

6. There was 7. The exam wasn’t 8. This coffee is

difficult after all, was it? hot for me to drink.

Translate. Remember

:

Very = muy, mucho /a. So = tan, tanto /a. Too = demasiado /a Such = tan, tanto /a + adj. + noun.

1. Estoy muy cansada y tengo mucha hambre. ¿T´ u no?

2. Esa pel´ıcula no debe ser tan entretenida si tantos de ellos se quedaron dormidos.

12.5. EXERCISES 3.

101

a) Creo que est´as comprando demasiadas cosas y este mall es uno de los m´as caros. ¿Andas con tanta plata?

b) ¿Por qu´e me lo preguntas? Yo pens´e que t´ u ibas a pagar.

4.

a) Vi un programa tan bueno en la televisi´on, que todos deber´ıan verlo. Lo dan ma˜ nana de nuevo. ¿Lo viste?

b) No, porque en realidad no me gusta mucho la televisi´on.

5.

a) Estoy tan cansada que a veces pienso que estoy haciendo demasiadas cosas al mismo tiempo.

b) Deber´ıas ver m´edico. Est´as muy p´alida. Puede que est´es enferma.

6. La profesora nos dio demasiado poco tiempo para contestar una prueba tan larga y con tantas traducciones.

Read the following paragraph and write down ten questions about it. The sky went green.1 Everyone thought that Gulf in the USA was an ordinary, quiet little town until November 11, 1977. Two friends, Ed Walters ahd Charlie Bennet reported a very strange incident. At 1

Taken from : Grammar Four, Jennifer Seidi, Oxford University Press.

102

UNIT 12.

first nobody believed their story, but even today, both Charlie and Ed claim that the incident really happened. Here is part of an interview which was shown on Florida News the day after the kidnapping. It was seven o’clock in the evening. My friend Charlie and I were walking through the park. We were going home. We were talking and laughing. Suddenly the sky went very dark. Charlie looked up and said, “It is going to rain”. Then I heard a loud bang and the sky went bright green. I thought I was dreaming. There was a huge, shiny spaceship just above our heads, It wasn’t moving. It was pulling us off the ground. Seconds later, we were inside it. Twenty strange creatures were looking at us. They all had wrinckled skin and hands like pincers. They did not hurt us. They were smiling and they seemed very friendly. I do not know how long we were in space, but I think the spaceship was moving. Suddenly the door opened underneath us. We fell out of the spaceship onto the ground. We were back in the park again. Charlie and I just stared at each other. We were shaking because we were so scared. Then we ran home as fast as we could. That is all Charlie and I can remember. I know it sounds crazy but it is the truth.

12.5. EXERCISES Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

103

104

UNIT 12.

Unit 13

13.1

Some uses of get

13.1.1

Replacing other verbs

The usual meanings are

Examples

13.1.2

obtain receive buy earn win arrive catch an illness understand : Jane got (obtained) a 5.0 in the last test. She always gets (arrive at) home late.

Get + preposition / adverb Get Get Get Get Get

Examples

13.1.3

:

:

across Get in ahead Get out along Get down up Get away back Get together

Get Get Get Get

on off through over

What time did you get back (return) last night? The robbers got away (escaped) with the money.

Get + adjectives

(Remember: Be+ adjectives : I’m tired; We are very hungry. etc.) The common meaning in Spanish is : ”se”, “ ponerse”, “dar”, “hacerse”. 105

106

UNIT 13. Get Get Get Get Get Get Get Get Examples

13.2

:

acquainted angry bored cold/ hot drunk excited fat/ thin frightened

Get Get Get Get Get Get Get Get

hungry late lost lucky mad married nervous old

Get Get Get Get Get Get Get Get

pale / red ready sad sick / ill tired upset well/better wet

I always get nervous when I have a test. (me pongo nervioso) They got married ten years ago. (se casaron)

Exercises

Replace GET for the verb that corresponds in the right tense. Ex.

:

I got the best grade in our last test. I obtained the best grade in our last test.

1. Have you got any letters from her?

2. I’ll get a new one for you.

3. He’s got the flu twice this year.

4. Don’t you get what I mean?

5. What time did you get here this morning?

6. I’ve got $ 10.000 babysitting this week.

7. Did she get your E-mail?

8. Please, get to tickets for me, will you?

13.2. EXERCISES

107

Translate 1. Apur´emonos o nuestro profesor se enojar´a.

2. Me voy de inmediato porque se est´a haciendo tarde y me puedo perder.

3. Me bajar´e del bus en el pr´oximo paradero.

4. ¿Cu´ando nos podr´ıamos juntar para conversar?

5. ¿Entremos a la casa? Me dio fr´ıo ac´a afuera.

6.

a) No podr´ıa correr un metro m´as. Me cans´e demasiado.

b) ¿Te consigo algo para tomar en ese quiosco?

7.

a) ¿C´omo te llevas con tu familia pol´ıtica?

b) Me llevo bien con todos ellos.

8.

a) ¿A qu´e hora te levantas?

b) Me tengo que levantar no m´as tarde de las 8:00 porque s´olo as´ı puedo llegar a mi trabajo a tiempo.

9. Se pone triste con mucha frecuencia porque est´a viviendo lejos de su familia.

108

UNIT 13.

10.

a) ¿D´onde conseguiste ese libro?

b) Mi mam´a lo compr´o ayer en la Feria del Libro.

11. Nunca le he entendido lo que dice. Habla demasiado r´apido.

12.

a) Me estoy aburriendo de estudiar tanto. Se est´a poniendo cada d´ıa m´as dif´ıcil este curso.

b) No estoy de acuerdo. Creo que puede que t´ u te est´es poniendo m´as floja. ¿o no?.

13.3

Other, another, the others, etc.

These pronouns (or adjectives) are used to refer to additional things or people. They may be divided into singular and plural.

13.3.1

Singular

a) another = (otro, otra) + singular noun. (Adjective or pronoun) Example

:

Could you bring me another soda? This is not a good movie. I prefer to see another.

b) the other = (el otro, la otra) + a singular noun. The remaining one. We can also say : this that my OTHER any some no Example: I bought two pairs of shoes. One is black and the other (pair) is brown.

13.4. EXERCISES

13.3.2

109

Plural

a) other = (otros, otras) + a plural noun.(Adjective) Example: Some students live very near here. Other students live far but they could come on foot, but others live very far. b) others = (otros, otras) Pronoun (without mentioning the noun). c) the other = (los otros, las otras) + a plural noun. (Adjective) Example: I don’t like these CDs. The other Cds ( or the others) you bought are better. As in the singular “the other”, we can say these other, those other, some other, any other etc.+ a plural noun. d) the others = ( los otros, las otras) Pronoun. The remaining ones. (some others, any others, no others etc.)

13.4

Exercises

Fill with the different forms of OTHER 1. Waiter, bring me

piece of cake.

2. They say that life there is easier than in

countries.

3. I’ve brought two magazines. I’ll read one. Would you like to see 4. Some of them are in the room. What about

?

5. They have two kids. One is a boy and 6. How many 7. There wasn’t

is a girl.

choices were there? route to get there.

8. The twins look so alike that you can’t tell one from 9. Only six of those are yours. 10. The post office is on

?

are mine. side of the street.

.

110

UNIT 13.

Translate 1.

a) Yo s´olo us´e los l´apices amarillos. ¿Qui´en tom´o los otros? No encuentro ning´ un otro.

b) Mary se llev´o los dem´as. Dijo que te los iba a devolver tan pronto termine su trabajo.

2.

a) Me gustar´ıa ver otra pel´ıcula. Ya he visto ´esta un par de veces y no tiene mucha acci´on.

b) Cuando te pregunt´e el otro d´ıa, dijiste que te encantar´ıa verla ya que era el tipo de pel´ıcula que le gusta a todo el mundo.

a) ¿Si? Probablemente estaba pensando en otra.

13.5

Adverbs

They characterize actions. (Adjectives characterize nouns). a) Adjective + ly: rapid - rapidly quick - quickly slow - slowly Examples

:

b) Special cases:

total general useful

- totally - generally - usefully

Please, speak slowly. She always does things very carefully.

13.6. EXERCISES

111 Good Fast Hard

Example

:

well fast hard

I’ve got a fast car. This car runs fast. He’s a hard working person. He works very hard. No matter what you do, do it well.

Note: Adverbs usually precede expressions of place. Example

:

She sang beautifully at the concert last night. The boys were sitting quietly in their rooms.

c) Verbs of movement (go, come, travel, walk,stay, run etc.) are followed by place. Example: Come here quickly.

13.6

Exercises

Re-write the following placing the complements in their correct order. 1. Their teacher spoke to them (in class – this morning – very rudely)

2. He loved her (all his life – passionately)

3. We went (quickly – to school – in the morning)

4. Their flight arrived (on time – at the airport – yesterday evening)

5. She’s leaving (the day after tomorrow – for Canada – regretfully)

Supply the correct form : Adjective or Adverb. 1. The teacher next door speaks very (soft). 2. I’ll have a

(loud) while ours speaks

(quick) meal because I have to go out (quick)

112

UNIT 13.

3. She speaks English (good).

(fluent), but she can’t write it very

4. He always treats everybody (nice) person. 5. English may seem like a who don’t study 6. We were sitting

(nice) because he is a very (hard) language to learn for many students (hard).

(comfortable) at our desks when she walked in (sudden) and said that we had to evacuate the building

(quick). Note: Verbs of “senses” are followed by adjective and not by adverbs. Examples : You look pretty. It sounds nice. That tastes delicious. I feel good. That flower smells great. Translate 1. A las 7:00 se fue r´apidamente a la estaci´on, ya que no deseaba perder el tren nuevamente.

´ 2. Ultimamente no se ha estado sintiendo muy bien ese paciente, pero su doctor piensa que se recuperar´a pronto.

3. Si vas a salir de la ciudad por el fin de semana, maneja con cuidado Hay demasiados conductores que manejan demasiado r´apido y con demasiado riesgo.

4. Volvimos r´apido a la casa con nuestros amigos, despu´es del partido de f´ utbol. Hac´ıa un poco de fr´ıo a esa hora y ya llov´ıa fuerte. Por suerte Chile jug´o bien y gan´o a Argentina 3 a 1.

13.7. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS

13.7

113

Reflexive and emphatic pronouns I You He She It We You They One

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves oneself

Reflexive action: She looked at herself in the mirror. The little boy hurt himself while playing. Please, take care of yourselves. Emphatic use: I (myself) painted the whole house (myself). The girls (themselves) prepared the barbeque (themselves). Meaning “alone” : by + self / selves She likes to be by herself. Look how big he is, he can eat by himself.

13.8

Exercises

Fill in appropriately. Add by when necessary: 1. (a) May I introduce

? I’m

(b) Nice to meet you. Tell me, haven’t we met before? 2. (a) Ouch! (b) You see? I told you you would hurt 3. Let’s not feel so sorry for 4. Little Sam can’t comb

with that hammer. so often. Shall we?

yet, can he?

114

UNIT 13.

5. One must behave 6. My little sister and I are

at official ceremonies. because mother is at the market.

7. The boys washed

after they washed the car.

8. Did you all enjoy

at the beach last weekend?

9. Stop blaming 10. Why was she all

for such a minor accident as that. in the dark?

11. They haven’t been able to finish the project

. They needed some help.

Translate 1. Se cort´o con las tijeras y se limpi´o con alcohol, pero el dolor le dur´o como una semana. Sin embargo, no necesit´o ver a ning´ un doctor.

2. Uno deber´ıa preocuparse m´as de uno mismo. Dicen que la caridad comienza por casa, ¿No crees?

3. Nunca hab´ıa le´ıdo un poema tan lindo como el que tienes ah´ı. ¿Lo escribiste t´ u misma?

4. S´ırvanse ustedes mismos la ensalada. Yo misma la ali˜ n´e y me qued´o exquisita ¿verdad?

13.8. EXERCISES

115

5. Casi se mata. No se dio cuenta que ven´ıa el tren de la diez y su auto estaba estacionado justo sobre los rieles. Menos mal que no estaba sola, porque es tan distra´ıda!.

6. ¡M´ırate! Te ves como mono. Anda y l´avate. P´einate tambi´en.

116

UNIT 13.

Unit 14

14.1

It takes = Demorarse

It + any tense of TAKE It took It won’t take It usually takes It should take

+ sb/sth. + him them me you

time + long very long an hour shorter to

to infinitive to forget her. to be ready. to get there do that exercise.

+ C

How long did it take you to paint that? How long would it take me to get there by subway? How long does it usually take Tom to do his homework? Note: “Long” and “short” are frequently used to talk about time in this construction. Short / long A (very) short / long time So short / so long Such a short / long time Too short / long Quite short / long Shorter / longer

14.2

Exercises

Answer the following questions 1. How long does it take you to get here from home?

2. Which takes longer, to make money or to spend it?

117

118

UNIT 14.

3. How long is it taking the workers to build the new subway line?

Make the corresponding question 1. It takes me very short to do my exercises. 2. It should take them one day or two to get the passports. 3. Yes, it should take longer to transport the woods by railway. 4. No, It doesn’t take a student very long to understand “it takes”. 5. It took him less than an hour to shovel the snow off the sidewalk. Translate 1. (a) ¿Cu´anto demora aprender a manejar?

(b) Depende de la persona. Generalmente demora dos o tres semanas. En mi caso, me demor´e un poco m´as en sentirme confiada.

2. (a) ¿Cu´anto te demoras en llegar desde tu casa?

(b) No me demoro mucho. Vivo relativamente cerca y a veces me vengo caminando

3. (a) ¿Te demoraste mucho en hacer la u ´ltima prueba de ingl´es?

14.3. USED TO (GO) + INFINITIVE

119

(b) No me demor´e mucho en hacer los dos primeros ´ıtemes, pero me demor´e m´as de lo que cre´ı en traducir la u ´ltima secci´on. Pero pude terminar antes de que la profesora nos pidiera nuestras pruebas.

14.3

Used to (go) + Infinitive

Means Sol´ıa salir, acostumbraba a salir, antes sal´ıa We used to play with dolls when we were little. (now, we don’t) Bobby didn’t use to smoke, but now he does. She used to travel abroad very often, but now she can’t. Who used to take you to school?

14.4

Exercises

Answer the following questions 1. What did you use to do on your summer vacation which you don’t do anymore?

2. Which school subject used to be your favorite? Explain.

Turn into customary past when suitable 1. Mrs Jenkins got together with her friends every weekend when she was single.

2. They went to church every Sunday morning when they were living in that small town.

120

UNIT 14.

3. Tim and I were afraid of dogs. Now we love them.

4. What did the children do when there was no Televisi´on?

5. How did people travel when there were no cars?

6. How long did it take travelers to get to Europe by ship?

14.5

Future perfect

WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Example

14.6

:

Conditional perfect

WOULD COULD SHOULD MIGHT I I I I

By the time I get home, everybody will have had dinner already. (Todo el mundo ya habr´ a cenado.) By this time next year, we will have finished this course . . . (habremos terminado). . .

+

HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

would have gone could have gone should have gone might have gone

Example

:

: Habr´ıa ido : Podr´ıa haber ido : Deber´ıa haber ido : “A lo mejor” hubiera ido.

I would have gone to your house last night. But I had to work. We could have finished this work on time. She should have visited the doctor long ago.

14.7. EXERCISES

14.7

Exercises

Translate: 1. Podr´ıas haberme avisado que ibas a llegar tarde. No te habr´ıa esperado en pie.

2. Para el 2050, esperemos que habr´an descubierto si existe vida extraterrestre.

3. Cuando la mam´a llegue a la casa en la noche, los ni˜ nos ya se habr´an acostado.

4. Si no contestaban, deber´ıas haber insistido. Podr´ıan haber estado ocupados.

5. Quiz´as habr´ıa sido mejor postergar la reuni´on. Muy poca gente vino.

121

122

UNIT 14.

Unit 15

15.1

Subjunctive tense in English

There are different ways of expressing this tense in English. This is one of them: S She His father

+

want wanted asked

VERBS USED Advise Allow Ask Beg Cause Compel Encourage Expect Force Get Hate Instruct Intend Invite Like Love Examples

:

+ somebody us his kids

+ (not) to do + something to be on time for class. not to drink much.

: Need Oblige Order Permit Persuade to write the sentences. Prefer me, you, them (not) to study Press John, the girls, etc. to do it again. Recommend Request Remind Teach Tell Want Warn

We’d like the teacher to give us more examples. I advised them to come early. The had warned us not to go there. I don’t need you to be here so early. I always get somebody to clean the windows. My mom taught me (how) to drive. They don’t allow people to smoke in here. Please, remind me to bring the Cds next class. I ’ve always encouraged my kids to do their best. I love everybody to pay attention to what I say. 123

124

UNIT 15.

Translate these examples into Spanish.

15.2

Exercises

Write the corresponding questions 1. I want you to come back before midnight. 2. She reminded us not to forget our notes. 3. They ordered everybody to evacuate the building immediately. 4. No. I’ve never asked him to do me a favour. 5. He really hates people to tell him what to do. 6. My friends encouraged me to talk with my boss about my problem. Tell the following using this construction. Use the verbs in parenthesis as introduction Example

:

Please have a seat. (invite) He (has) invited us to have a seat.

1. Don’t shout here (order)

2. Could you open the door? (ask)

3. The children can’t play outside because it’s raining. (allow)

15.2. EXERCISES

125

4. Do all your homework (remind)

5. Please, don’t come back late, will you? (beg)

Answer these questions in full 1. How would you like the man / woman of your dreams to be?

2. What would you advise a friend in trouble to do?

3. Who would you like to invite to eat out? / and to invite you?

4. What don’t you like people to do?

5. What day would you like it to be today?

Translate 1. ¿Qu´e m´as quieres que haga? Me gustar´ıa que fueras bien clara.

2. Siempre nos pide que le pongamos atenci´on y que no hablemos cuando nos explica algo.

3. Te hab´ıa dicho que te pusieras abrigo porque hac´ıa fr´ıo, ¿o no?

4. Me encantar´ıa que me ayudaras con estas traducciones. ¿Podr´ıas?

126

UNIT 15.

5. A su mam´a le encanta que su pap´a la ayude con su trabajo de la casa.

6. Le ordenaron que no molestara m´as y que se bajara de la micro de inmediato.

7. Esper´abamos que llegaran como a las 12:00 pero su avi´on se demor´o m´as de lo pensado.

8. Tendremos que conseguir que alguien nos arregle el auto,

9. ¿Qu´e le pedir´ıas a Santa Claus que te trajera, si existiera?

10. No quieren que lleguemos tarde. Me rogaron que fu´eramos puntuales.

11. No nos est´an obligando a hacerlo, s´olo no recomendaron hacerlo de esa forma.

15.3

Gerund / ing form

1. After preposition Call me before leaving He’s very good at playing tennis. Thank you for coming. I’m very fond of reading history. Teresa can’t give up smoking. We are all looking forward to their arriving. (Look forward to) She finally got used to living in France. (Get used to) He’s used to having dinner early (be used to) 2. After certain verbs or expressions: (verb + (possessive) + ing) Appreciate enjoy like Avoid feel like mind Be worth finish miss Can’t help hate stop Can’t stand it’s no use understand* Consider keep forget* Postpone suggest quit

15.3. GERUND / ING FORM Examples

:

127

I can’t stand her talking so loudly. I really miss talking to you. Do you feel like going out tonight? We remember visiting those old monuments. They would really appreciate our calling back.

3. Subject Examples

: Speaking English is very useful when you travel. Learning a new language is interesting. Doing exercises is good for health.

Complete the following using ING 1. Are you talking about

?

2. Did you enjoy

?

3. We are used to

?

4. I really don’t mind

?

5. That book is worth

?

6. At this time of the week we all feel like

?

7. He is not very good at

?

8. He got very rich by

?

9. I suggest

?

10. I’ve been thinking of

?

128

UNIT 15.

Unit 16 Review of Modals 16.1

Create your own sentences with these modals

1. Can

2. Could (a) (b) 3. May

4. Might

5. Must

6. Musn’t

7. Should

8. Needn’t

129

130

UNIT 16. REVIEW OF MODALS

9. Would

10. Will REMEMBER: How to express POWER in different tenses. Can

=

Can

=

Can

=

Can

=

May

=

perception (puedo) Smell Hear Speak Feel Taste See ability, know how Swim Drive Play the guitar Speak French possibility, informal permission. Tell the time Use your telephone future idea I can see you tomorrow Can we meet next week? permission, probability (¿Puedo? Puede que...) Say something Rain/Snow

PAST: Could

=

permission or possibility I could swim when I was a child.

CONDITIONAL: Could

=

Could I say something? Could you do me a favour?

To express power in future, perfect tenses, conditional, etc. We use BE ABLE TO. Examples: We will be able to do it in an hour. (Podremos hacerlo...) We have been able to translate that. They hadn’t been able to open the box You may be able to speak fast if you practise more.

16.2. TRANSLATE

131

Note: BE ABLE also means “ability” (atreverse, ser capaz de...) Examples: I’m able to tell him the truth. I’m not afraid of him. They were able to rescue many survivors although it was very difficult. Infinitive: To be able to

16.2

= para poder (in order to, so as to) You will have to practise to be able to speak well.

Translate

1. No se tocar el piano, pero se tocar la guitarra.

2. (a) La hija de mi primo no sabe hablar ingl´es muy bien.

(b) Yo le puedo ense˜ nar. ¿Podr´a venir a clases los martes?

3. No he podido hablar con mi jefe porque ha estado fuera de la oficina todo el d´ıa.

4. “Nunca podr´e aprender matem´aticas” dec´ıa yo cuando estaba en el colegio. De hecho, nunca pude.

5. Eso no puede ser cierto. ¡No lo puedo creer! Yo le hab´ıa advertido que tuviera mas cuidado.

6. Hice todo lo posible pero no pude terminar el trabajo a tiempo.

7. Me dijo que no hab´ıa podido encontrar pasajes para el d´ıa domingo.

132

UNIT 16. REVIEW OF MODALS

8. Nadie hab´ıa podido comprar el diccionario que recomend´o la profesora porque era muy caro, pero con esta oferta estoy segura que lo comprar´an ma˜ nana.

16.3

Modal perfect S + MODAL (NOT) + PAST PARTICIPLE + C

Examples: She should have studied harder. It must have been very difficult for them to live there. He might have left a message for us with the secretary. What else could we have done? She can’t have said such a stupid thing. She is smart. I would have gone to your party. But I couldn’t You needn’t have defended me. I was able to do it myself. The class was very interesting. You shouldn’t have missed it. What would you have done in my case? Where could they have gone? Answer the following questions 1. Should they have sold their house? It was so pretty.

2. What must have happened to him? He hasn’t arrived yet.

3. What time should the match have started?

4. Should she have married that old man? She looks unhappy.

5. They weren’t home. Where can they have gone?

16.3. MODAL PERFECT Add one logical idea to these statements using a modal perfect. Example:

Pablo was very sick. He should have stayed in bed today.

1. Some students failed the exam.

2. Nobody answered the phone.

3. He does not like his profession.

4. There were many people at the corner.

5. Fortunately the accident wasn’t so serious.

6. Professor Jones did not come to class this morning.

7. That building fell down after the quake.

Write questions for these answers

1. He should have worn a tuxedo for that ball. 2. They should have built a bridge over that river. 3. Alice shouldn’t have married such a young man. 4. I could have bought more bottles of milk.

133

134

UNIT 16. REVIEW OF MODALS

5. We could’ve invited the Bells for the party. 6. They should have told us that they weren’t coming.

16.4

Translate

1. Deber´ıas haberme advertido que no bailara con ´el.

2. Podr´ıamos haber ido al cine. Est´an dando una muy buena pel´ıcula en el Hoyts.

3. Se deben haber aburrido mucho esperando en la esquina.

4. Debe haber llovido. El suelo est´a mojado.

5. Deber´ıamos haber estudiado juntos. Podr´ıamos haber hecho m´as ejercicios.

6. Debe haber sido dif´ıcil para ellos vivir tan lejos de su familia.

7. Deber´ıas haberme avisado que no vendr´ıas a comer. Hab´ıa preparado algo rico.

8. Les debe haber pasado algo. Nunca llegan tan tarde.

9. Juanita debe haber tenido mucho sue˜ no, porque se qued´o dormida muy temprano

16.4. TRANSLATE 10. Deber´ıamos haber puesto atenci´on al profesor. Su clase fue bastante interesante.

135

136

UNIT 16. REVIEW OF MODALS

Unit 17 Conditional sentences 17.1

PRESENT REAL If If If If

you have time, we can go to the cinema tonight. the students don’t come to class, they will not learn much. the weather is fine, we are going to the mountains next weekend. they ask us to come at 3:00, we will be here at that time.

BUT If you drive so fast, you MIGHT have an accident. If the weather continous like this, it MIGHT rain.

17.2

Exercises

Complete with logical ideas 1. You will pass this course if 2. I will go out of town this weekend if 3. If you are late for class, 4. You won’t make new friends if 5. We will have a nice time if 6. If he/she goes to the party, I 7. If we don’t have a test next week, 8. If he/she doesn’t call me,

137

138

UNIT 17. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

9. If it rains tomorrow 10. My friends won’t have any problems if Translate 1. Si me vienes a buscar, podr´e ir a la fiesta contigo.

2. Le voy a regalar algo lindo, si tengo plata.

3. Voy a salir este fin de semana si no tengo prueba el lunes.

4. Si todos hacemos lo posible, el planeta se salvar´a.

5. Si no estudiamos, no pasaremos el ramo.

6. Todo va a estar bien si trabajamos harto.

7. Si tiene tiempo, conversaremos con la profesora.

8. Si el tiempo esta bueno, podremos salir a la playa.

17.3

Hope HOPE

+ S + V (present) + C

I hope everything is fine. If everything is fine, we will be happy. I hope you can get a raise. If you can get a raise, you will be able to buy a car. She hopes she gets a good grade. If she gets a good grade, she will pass.

17.4. EXERCISES

17.4

139

Exercises

Make sentences using HOPE Example:

Will the weather be nice tomorrow? I hope the weather is nice tomorrow.

1. Will he get the job? 2. Will it rain tonight? 3. Will we have a test today? 4. Will we have classes next Saturday? 5. Will I pass this course?

17.5

Present unreal

If I had time, I would read more. If he worked less, he could see his friends more often. If we didn’t like that music, we wouldn’t go to the concert. NOTE:

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. If it were Sunday today, we could be sleeping. If you were my friend, you would tell me the truth. If. . . I, he, she, it, we, you, they WERE

17.6

Exercices

Complete with logical ideas: 1. If we had more time, 2. They would come tomorrow if 3. Nothing would happen if 4. If everybody were more conscious, 5. If I had a million dollars, I 6. If I didnt live so far,

140

UNIT 17. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

17.7

Wish WISH

+ S + V (PAST)

+ C

I wish we met more often. If we met more often, we could do many things together. He wishes he got better grades. If he got better grades, he could sleep better. All of us wish we there were fewer car accidents. If there were fewer accidents, there would be less suffering. Parents wish their children studied a career. If their children studied a career, parents would be very happy.

17.8

Exercises

Make a sentence using wish: Example: He can’t cook. He wishes he could cook. 1. He doesn’t dance very well. 2. They can’t speak English. 3. I can’t fix my car. 4. Little Peter can’t read. 5. They don’t live in the city. 6. They live in the country. 7. He is very heavy. If I were you. . . 1. I’m going skiing this weekend. 2. I’m going to buy a used car. 3. I’m going to drop English. 4. I’m going to use my dad’s cell phone.

17.9. PAST UNREAL

17.9

Past unreal

If we had seen the weather report, we would have carried umbrellas. I wouldn’t have bought those shoes if I had known they were so expensive. If they had passed all exams last year, they could have been working now.

17.10

Exercises

Make sentences using the conditional. Example: I got stuck in a traffic jam and I was late. If I had driven, I wouldn’t have been late. 1. I didn’t come to class because I didn’t feel well.

2. It was raining and I didn’t have my umbrella.

3. My friend forgot it was my birthday yesterday. He didn’t call me.

4. She didn’t say hello. She must have been in a hurry.

5. She went to sleep early. She must have had a hard day at the office.

6. Some students arrived late for class. They must have missed the bus.

7. A police officer stopped me. Maybe I was driving too fast.

141

142

17.11

UNIT 17. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Wish WISH

+ S

+ V (PAST PERFECT)

+ C

They lived in Santiago but they wish they had lived in Valparaiso. If they had lived in Valparaiso, they could have lived near the beach. I studied very little. I wish I had studied more. If I had studied more, I would have gotten a better grade. I didn’t drive to work today. I wish I had driven to work today. If I had driven to work, I wouldn’t have been late.

17.12

Exercises

Make a wish. . . 1. I had a headache all day. I didn’t take medicine.

2. I didn’t do my homework last night. I had to do it early this morning.

3. I ate a lot this winter. I gained a lot of weight.

4. The doctor was very late. The patients waited for a long time.

5. His alarm clock didn’t ring this morning. He overslept.

Translate: 1. Si hubiera sabido que no ´ıbamos a tener prueba, no habr´ıa venido tan temprano.

2. Todo habr´ıa sido diferente si no hubi´eramos tenido que salir tan apurados.

17.13. CAUSATIVE USE OF HAVE/GET

143

3. Si llueve ma˜ nana no vamos a salir de Santiago.

4. Ojal´a hubi´eramos tenido m´as tiempo para la prueba. Estuvo demasiado larga y demasiado poco tiempo.

5. Si yo fuera t´ u, no hablar´ıa con el profesor todav´ıa. Esperar´ıa un par de d´ıas.

6. Ojal´a no llueva este fin de semana. Si no llueve podremos preparar un rico asado en el patio.

7. No podr´ıamos haber hecho ese trabajo si el profesor no nos hubiera aclarado el problema.

8. Si yo fuera t´ u, le pedir´ıa que me corrigiera la prueba altiro para estar tranquilo.

17.13

Causative use of have/get

HAVE / GET SOMETHING “DONE” Examples:

I wrote a letter. (I myself did it) He painted his house (He himself painted it)

But. . . When we mean Pint´e la casa (but I didn’t), Hice pintar la casa o Mand´e pintar la casa, etc. We say:

17.14

I HAD my house PAINTED. (somebody else did). I HAD my hair CUT. (somebody else cut it)

Exercises

Read these examples and translate them: 1. I will have my eyes examined. 2. My mom always had her clothes made.

144

UNIT 17. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

3. Why don’t you get your clothes washed? 4. I will have to have new curtains made. 5. He hasn’t got his car fixed yet. Transform these sentences using the causative use of HAVE: Example: Someone will paint my house. I will have my house painted. 1. Someone has cut her lawn. 2. Some will paper her room. 3. Someone is doing my nails for the party. 4. Someone did all the translation for them. 5. Someone must repair our spare tire soon. Translate: 1. Fue al dentista para que le sacaran la muela el juicio.

2. Mis amigos se hicieron una linda casa en el lago.

3. Hellen se cort´o el pelo donde Ferrer pero no se lo peinaron.

4. Deber´ıamos hacer que nos enviaran los muebles desde la tienda.

5. (a) ¿Cu´ando te cortaste el pelo?

(b) No me lo cort´e s´olo me lo encresp´e.

17.14. EXERCISES

145

6. Voy a tener una fiesta en mi casa y voy a mandar a hacer todo. Es mucho m´as c´omodo.

7. Si hubiera mandado a arreglar la lavadora, no habr´ıa tenido que mandar todo a la lavander´ıa

8. Un amigo m´ıo se sac´o el ap´endice porque le estaba molestando mucho.

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INGL´ES - Departamento de Física. - Universidad de Chile

Departamento de F´ısica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile. ˜ noa. Casilla 653, Correo 1, Santiago Las Palmeras 3425, Nu˜ fono: 562 978 7276 ...

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