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Minimum Wage Report INDONESIA

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Minimum Wages In Indonesia

Minimum Wage is a minimum standard that is used by employers to pay their workers legally. Indonesia has 33 provinces, because the proper daily needs in each province is different, we called it Province Minimum Wage. Act No. 13/2003 article 89 states that the determination of the minimum wage is directed to meet the needs of a decent life. The minimum wage is determined by the Governor after considering recommendations of the Provincial Wage Councils and region Mayor. Based on Ministerial regulation no. 1/1999, Minimum wage is the lowest monthly wage which consists of basic salary including fixed allowances. This wage applies to those who are single and have a 0-1 year work experience, as a safety net, and established by the Governor approval upon the recommendation of the Wage Council and it is valid for 1 year. According to Act no.13/2003 article 94, wage component consist of basic salary and fixed allowances, the amount of basic wages have to be at least 75% of the total wage (basic salary+fixed allowances) . The definition of fixed allowances are allowances that are collected regularly and was not associated with the presence or achievements of work such as: position benefits, communication benefits, family benefits, allowances for skill / profession. Food and transport allowances are non fixed allowances because its calculations based on attendance or work performance. In Indonesia Minimum Wage serves: 1. As a safety net, to prevent the wages to go below the level of minimum living needs. 2. As part of the implementation of 'Pancasila', the five principles that define the Indonesian state, and the Constitution from 1945, in which Indonesian citizens are promised a good life. 3. As an effort to a more equal distribution of income, and uplift a growing middle class.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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4.

To make sure that the economic development is not only enjoyed by a small portion of society who has a chance, but also reaches the lowincome communities and families.

5.

As an indicator of economic development (Per Capita Income) Minimum wage applies in all 33 provinces and approximately 340 districts/ regions in Indonesia. Based on 2008 data, there were 176,986 officially recorded formal-sector, in the year 2011 that number has risen to 197,000. These are the companies that are obliged to pay the minimum wage.

Official statistics show the labor force reached 116 million in 2010. Of those a total of 107.41 million people are working. The remaining 8.96 million people are unemployed. From that 107.41 million people who worked, there were 33.96 million people working under 35 hours/week which are classified as half unemployed. As off 2008, 3,405,615 people were members of registered Trade Unions. 1.092.832 more people were members of Trade Unions which are not listed. This means the union density in Indonesia only reached 5-10% of the entire workforce. The Wage Council is responsible for reviewing the proposed Minimum Wages which will be submitted to the Governors or Mayors. The Wage Council itself consists of representatives of: Government, Employers and Trade Unions. There are Wage Councils on a national, a provincial and a regional level.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Minimum Wage Rates The following table gives UMP in 2010 for 33 provinces in Indonesia compared to the year UMP in 2009 and the percentage increase. No.

Province

UMP 2009 (USD)

UMP 2010 (USD)

Rise

1,200,000

1,300,000

8:30%

1

Aceh

2

North Sumatra

905,000

965,000

6.60%

3

Boast

880,000

950,000

8.00%

4

Riau

901,600

1,016,000

12.70%

5

Riau Islands

892,000

925,000

3.70%

6

Jambi

800,000

900,000

12:50%

7

South Sumatra

824,730

927,000

12:40%

8

Bangka Belitung

850,000

910,000

7:10%

9

Bengkulu

735,000

780,000

6:10%

10

Lampung

691,000

767,500

11:10%

11

West Java

628,191

671,500

6.90%

12

Jakarta

1,069,865

1,118,009

4:50%

13

Banten

917,500

955,300

4:10%

14

Central Java

575,000

660,000

14.80%

15

Yogyakarta

700,000

745,695

6:50%

16

East Java

570,000

630,000

10:50%

17

Bali

760,000

829,316

9:10%

18

NTB

832,500

890,775

7:00%

19

NTT

725,000

800,000

10:30%

20

West Kalimantan

705,000

741,000

5:10%

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The following table gives UMP in 2010 for 33 provinces in Indonesia compared to the year UMP in 2009 and the percentage increase. Province

No.

UMP 2009 (USD)

UMP 2010 (USD)

Rise

21

South Kalimantan

930,000

1,024,500

10:20%

22

Central Kalimantan

873,089

986,500

13:00%

23

East Kalimantan

955,000

1,002,000

4.90%

24

Moluccas

775,000

840,000

8:40%

25

North Maluku is still in the process of wage board

26

Gorontalo

675,000

710,000

5:20%

27

North Sulawesi

925,500

990,000

7:00%

28

Southeast Sulawesi

770,000

860,000

11.70%

29

Central Sulawesi

720,000

777,500

8.00%

30

South Sulawesi

905,000

1,000,000

10:50%

31

West Sulawesi

909,400

944,200

3.80%

32

Papua

1,216,100

1,316,500

8:30%

33

West Papua

1,180,000

1,210,000

2.50%

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Minimum Wage Legislation Frequently Asked Questions 1

Is there a separate legislation relating to minimum wages in Indonesia? There is only one legislation for minimum wage (MW) as stipulated under Act 13 Year 2003 concerning empowerment article No 88, 89 and 90. Meanwhile, specialised regulation concerning Minimum Wage implementation is not launched yet. But, according to the previous Ministerial Decree No. 236/2000 concerning Minimum Wage describe that Minimum Wage can be determined both at province and district level. The Minimum Wage that is determined by the governor based on inputs of the Wage Council at province level is for the province. On the other hand, the minimum wage determined based on the inputs from the wage council of District or City Mayor for is for the district level. The Governor usually determines Minimum Wage once a year by issuing the governor decision letter.

2

Does one or more minimum wage/s exist that is/are determined by law ? Yes, there are more than one minimum wages determined by law. Based on Minimum Wage regulation there are Minimum Wage (MW) which are determined both at province and district level. At the province level there might be both Minimum Wage Province (MWP) and Minimum Wage Sectoral Province (MWSP). While at the district/City level there might be Minimum Wage District or City (MWD/City) and Minimum Wage Sectoral District/City (MWSD/City). However, in principal, only one of these Minimum Wages is stipulated for a worker and that depends on a district and sector where they work. For example, if some one works in certain district within a province, but the district does not have a Minimum Wage district yet. In such a case the Minimum Wage for the worker is based on the Minimum Wage Province. If, for example, the Minimum Wage exists in their district, then the Minimum Wage has to be as per Minimum Wage District. Similarly, if someone is working in certain sector within certain district and the district has determined Minimum Wage Sectoral District, then the minimum wage paid will be the MW Sectoral District.

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Minimum Wage Legislation Frequently Asked Questions

3

In case of more than one minimum wage, at what level are these minimum wages determined ?

In Indonesia, minimum wages is determined at Province level, District level and Occupational level. According to Article 89 of the Act, each region is given the power to frame their own minimum wages at provincial level and district level/city based. Provincial/District sectorial minimum wage rates are set in several provinces on the basis of agreements between corporate organizations and worker unions/labour federations. On the other hand, Minimum wages Sectoral at province and district level is the result of negotiations between employer and trade union in certain sector and is determined by the governor. Similarly, in certain city mostly in biggest province like Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan minimum wages is also determined at occupational level.

4

On what basis is minimum wage calculated ?

Minimum Wages is calculated on monthly basis. However, for daily workers minimum wages can be paid on daily or weekly basis.

5

In case of weekly/monthly minimum age, are they based on any fixed number of hours ?

Minimum wage is calculated as per 40 hours per week. These are regulated on Act No 13/2003 article 77: under subsection (2) as described in following: a.) 7 hours a day and 40 hours a week for 6 workdays a week or b.) 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week for 5 workdays a week.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Minimum Wage Legislation Frequently Asked Questions 6

Are

governmental

bodies,

employer

and/or

trade

union

representatives involved in minimum wages setting ? The Governor of each province decides the minimum wage rates based on recommendation and proposal from the Wages Provincial Council in order to determine Provincial Minimum Wages; and from the Mayor of District/City and or from District Wages Council to determine District/City Minimum Wages. The recommendations and proposal of the wage are based on the result of survey and meeting of the Wage Council. The wage council consist of government,

entrepreneurs,

labour

organisation

representatives.

Additionally, government bodies like National Statistics Body, Regional Planning body, Ministry of Manpower, Ministry of Industries, Ministry of Trade, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Transport at regional Office are also involved in minimum wage setting. Employer organisation that is involved in wage setting is APINDO (Employers Association) and three Trade Unions confederation involved are K-SBSI, KSPSI and KSPI (including federations/Sectors Union which affiliate to one of the 3 confederation). Universities and experts are also involved in wage setting in Indonesia. 7

How are upratings (adjustments) of minimum wages decided upon ? Adjustment are conducted officially by the governor after they get inputs from

the

wage

council

(Trade

union,

employer

and

government

representatives) both at province level for Province Minimum Wage (PMW) and district level For District Minimum Wages (DMW) 8

Which are the components of minimum wage in Indonesia ? All minimum wage components are fixed as under regulation of Manpower Ministry regulation No. 17/MEN/VIII/2005. These components consist of food & beverage, household, clothes, education, health, Transportation, recreation & savings.

9

How frequently is the fixed component of minimum wage updated ? Based on history, the fixed component has been updated twice. Usually it gets updated one in ten years. The fixed component is updated based on inputs received from the National Wage Council and is then decided by the President/Manpower Minister.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Minimum Wage Legislation Frequently Asked Questions 10

What is/are the yardstick/s on which minimum wage upratings are based? There are 6 yardsticks on which Minimum wage rate are based -1) Minimum Subsistence Requirement of workers 2) Consumer Price Index; 3) Company capacity to pay & carry out business continuously; 4) Level of wages and incomes in the country; 5) Economic development; 6) Level of employment. Information related to basic requirement for living is collected through survey conducted every month by the wage council.

11

What is the national poverty line ? (In national currency) Urban Rp 232 989; Rural Rp 192 354

12

How often is poverty line updated ? Poverty line is updated every year

13

When was poverty line last updated ? (Specify YYYY/MM) Poverty line was last updated in March 2010

14

What is the percentage of minimum wage relative to the current poverty line ? NATIONAL minimum wages/POVERTY LINE

15

What is the incidence of minimum wages(s) in the national labour force (wage earners only) ? 30% The Incidence of minimum wage in the

national labour force is as

follows: (a) below 30% - Usually those who work on temporary statue (contract, daily workers); (b) 35% Most of them who work on private sectors ; ( c) above 35% - Part of them are employee who works on public sectors with permanent statues 16

How is minimum wages compliance regulated ? Minimum wage compliance is regulated either through Labour Inspector or Trade Unions. Under Article 176 labour inspector needs to ensure proper implementations of minimum wages.

Additionally, Trade Unions can also

ensure proper and timely implementation of minimum wages Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Minimum Wage Legislation Frequently Asked Questions

17

Which legal sanctions can be applied if compliance is lacking ? According to Act 13/2003 under Article 185 subsection (1) Whosoever violates what is stipulated under subsection (1) of Article 90 shall be subjected to a fine of minimum of Rp100,000,000 (one hundred million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp400,000,000 (four hundred million rupiah). Or According to Act 13/2003 under Article 185

subsection (1) Whosoever

violates what is stipulated under subsection (1)

of Article 90 shall be

subjected to a criminal sanction in jail for a minimum of 1 (one) year and a maximum of 4 (four) years. The postponement of the payment of minimum wages by an enterprise that is financially not able to pay minimum wages is intended to release the enterprise from having to pay minimum wages for a certain period of time. If the postponement comes to an end, the enterprise is under an obligation to pay minimum wages that are applicable at the time but is not obliged to make up the difference between the wages it actually paid and the applicable minimum wages during the period of time of the postponement. 18

Are sanctions often being applied ? This depends on the report of compliance sent to the government.

19

Are employer and/or trade union representatives involved in compliance procedures ? No, the employer and or trade unions representatives are not involved in compliance procedures because the minimum wage is determined by the government (governor)

20

To whom/Where can individuals complain, if they think they are earning less than minimum wage ? Individuals can complain to the Employer or management or contractor coordinates (Article 136 Subsection(1)) or labour Inspector coordinates (There is a provision of having labour courts and special courts for industrial relations in case of compliance) or Trade Unions (Article 136 Subsection(2)) or an NGO, in case they feel that are earning less than the minimum wage Article 136 Subsection(1), they need to workout by consensus

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Upah Minimum Di Indonesia Pengertian Upah Minimum Upah Minimum adalah suatu standar minimum yang digunakan oleh para pengusaha atau pelaku industri untuk memberikan upah kepada pekerja di dalam lingkungan usaha atau kerjanya. Karena pemenuhan kebutuhan yang layak di setiap propinsi berbeda-beda, maka disebut Upah Minimum Propinsi. Menurut Permen no.1 Th. 1999 Pasal 1 ayat 1, Upah Minimum adalah upah bulanan terendah yang terdiri dari upah pokok termasuk tunjangan tetap. Upah ini berlaku bagi mereka yang lajang dan memiliki pengalaman kerja 0-1 tahun, berfungsi sebagai jaring pengaman, ditetapkan melalui Keputusan Gubernur berdasarkan rekomendasi dari Dewan Pengupahan dan berlaku selama 1 tahun berjalan. Apabila kita merujuk ke Pasal 94 Undang-Undang (UU) no.13 tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan, komponen upah terdiri dari upah pokok dan tunjangan tetap, maka besarnya upah pokok sedikit-dikitnya 75 % tunjangan

tetap.

Definisi

tunjangan

tetap

dari jumlah upah pokok dan

disini

adalah

tunjangan

yang

pembayarannya dilakukan secara teratur dan tidak dikaitkan dengan kehadiran atau pencapaian prestasi kerja contohnya : tunjangan jabatan, tunjangan komunikasi, tunjangan keluarga, tunjangan keahlian/profesi. Beda halnya dengan tunjangan makan dan transportasi, tunjangan itu bersifat tidak tetap karena penghitungannya berdasarkan kehadiran atau performa kerja.

Beberapa dasar pertimbangan dari penetapan upah minimum •

Sebagai jaring pengaman agar nilai upah tidak melorot dibawah kebutuhan hidup minimum.



Sebagai wujud pelaksanaan Pancasila, UUD 45 dan GBHN secara nyata.



Agar

hasil

pembangunan

tidak

hanya

dinikmati

oleh

sebagian

kecil

masyarakat yang memiliki kesempatan, tetapi perlu menjangkau sebagian terbesar masyarakat berpenghasilan rendah dan keluarganya. •

Sebagai satu upaya pemerataan pendapatan dan proses penumbuhan kelas menengah



Kepastian hukum bagi perlindungan atas hak - hak dasar Buruh dan keluarganya sebagai warga negara Indonesia.



Merupakan indikator perkembangan ekonomi ? Pendapatan Perkapita.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

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Banyaknya angkatan kerja, perusahaan dan serikat buruh/pekerja di Indonesia Upah Minimum berlaku di 33 propinsi dan kurang lebih 340 kabupaten/kotamadya di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data tahun 2008, terdapat 176.986 perusahaan sektor formal (punya legalitas seperti PT,CV) tercatat memiliki Surat Izin Usaha Perdagangan (SIUP), di tahun 2011 diperkirakan meningkat menjadi 197.000 yang tercatat. Data Statistik tahun 2010, menunjukan angkatan kerja mencapai 116 juta; dengan jumlah penduduk yang bekerja mencapai 107,41 juta jiwa dan sisanya 8,96 juta jiwa merupakan pengangguran terbuka. Dari 107,41 juta jumlah penduduk yang bekerja terdapat 33,96 juta orang yang bekerja dibawah 35 jam/minggu yang dikategorikan sebagai setengah menganggur. Berdasarkan data terakhir tahun 2008, tercatat 3.405.615 jumlah anggota Serikat Pekerja (yang terdaftar, sesuai Kepmenaker No.16/ 2001 tentang Pencatatan Serikat Buruh/Pekerja). Sedang bila melihat jumlah total anggota Serikat Pekerja terdapat 1.092.832 lagi anggota Serikat Pekerja yang tidak terdaftar. Bila dilihat dari tingkat keanggotaan Serikat Pekerja, maka densitas serikat di Indonesia hanya mencapai 5 - 10% dari jumlah pekerja.

Instansi yang bertanggung jawab memperbaiki Upah Minimum Dewan Pengupahan bertanggung jawab melakukan kajian studi mengenai Upah Minimum yang nantinya akan diserahkan kepada Gubernur, Walikota/Bupati masingmasing daerah. Dewan Pengupahan sendiri terdiri dari 3 unsur, yaitu Pemerintah, Pengusaha dan Serikat Pekerja. Dewan Pengupahan Propinsi untuk upah minimum tingkat Propinsi. Dewan Pengupahan Kabupaten/Kotamadya untuk tingkat Kabupaten/Kotamadya Sumber Indonesia. Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 2003 tentang Tenaga Kerja. Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri No.1 tahun 1999 Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri Tenaga Kerja no.16 tahun 2001 Wawancara dengan anggota Dewan Pengupahan Nasional Markus Sidauruk. KSBSI Indonesia

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Upah Minimum Propinsi (ump) 2011 Naik Upah Minimum Propvinsi baru untuk tahun 2011 telah ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah Kota/Daerah di setiap tingkat pemerintahan (Propinsi, Kabupaten/Kotamadya) dibantu oleh Dewan Pengupahan. Secara nasional, UMP tahun 2011 mengalami kenaikan rata-rata sebesar 8,69 persen dibandingkan UMP tahun 2010. Berikut adalah rincian Upah Minimum Propinsi (UMP) di 33 provinsi di seluruh Indonesia.

No.

Provinsi

Upah Minimum Provinsi (UMP)

Naik

2010 (Rp)

2011 (Rp)

(Rp)

(%)

Naik

1

Nanggroe Aceh Darusalam

1,300,000

1,350,000

50,000

3.85%

2

Sumatera Utara

965,000

1,035,500

70,500

7.31%

3

Sumatera Barat

940,000

1,055,000

115,000

12.23%

4

Riau

1,016,000

1,120,000

104,000

10.24%

5

Kepulauan Riau

925,000

975,000

50,000

5.41%

6

Jambi

900,000

1,028,000

128,000

14.22%

7

Sumatera Selatan

927,825

1,048,440

120,615

13.00%

8

Bangka Belitung

910,000

1,024,000

114,000

12.53%

9

Bengkulu

780,000

815,000

35,000

4.49%

10

Lampung

767,500

855,000

87,500

11.40%

11

Jawa Barat

671,500

732,000

60,500

9.01%

12

DKI Jakarta

1,118,009

1,290,000

171,991

15.38%

13

Banten

955,300

1,000,000

44,700

4.68%

14

Jawa Tengah

660,000

675,000

15,000

2.27%

15

Yogyakarta

745,694

808,000

62,306

8.36%

16

Jawa Timur

630,000

705,000

75,000

11.90%

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No.

Provinsi

Upah Minimum Provinsi (UMP)

Naik

2010 (Rp)

2011 (Rp)

(Rp)

(%)

Naik

17

Bali

829,316

890,000

60,684

7.32%

18

Nusa Tenggara Barat

890,775

950,000

59,225

6.65%

19

Nusa Tenggara Timur

800,000

850,000

50,000

6.25%

20

Kalimantan Barat

741,000

802,500

61,500

8.30%

21

Kalimantan Selatan

1,024,000

1,126,000

102,000

9.96%

22

Kalimantan Tengah

986,590

1,134,580

147,990

15.00%

23

Kalimantan Timur

1,002,000

1,084,000

82,000

8.18%

24

Maluku

840,000

900,000

60,000

7.14%

25

Maluku Utara

847,000

889,350

42,350

5.00%

26

Gorontalo

710,000

762,500

52,500

7.39%

27

Sulawesi Utara

1,000,000

1,050,000

50,000

5.00%

28

Sulawesi Tenggara

860,000

930,000

70,000

8.14%

29

Sulawesi Tengah

777,500

827,500

50,000

6.43%

30

Sulawesi Selatan

1,000,000

1,100,000

100,000

10.00%

31

Sulawesi Barat

944,200

1,006,000

61,800

6.55%

32

Papua

1,136,500

1,403,000

266,500

23.45%

33

Papua Barat

1,210,000

1,410,000

200,000

16.53%

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Kenaikan UMP ini telah disepakati oleh Dewan Pengupahan masing-masing daerah yang terdiri atas perwakilan serikat pekerja, pengusaha, pemerintah, dan pihak netral dari akademisi. Sebelumnya menetapkan UMP, Dewan Pengupahan juga telah melakukan survey Kebutuhan Hidup Layak (KHL), KHL sendiri mencakup kebutuhan pangan, sandang, papan, kesehatan, pendidikan, transportasi, rekreasi, hingga tabungan seorang pekerja

setiap

bulannya.

Setelah

melakukan

survey,

harga-harga

tersebut

dikalkukasi untuk melihat berapa kira-kira seorang pekerja menghabiskan uang setiap bulannya untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya tersebut. Sumber : Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (Kemenakertrans) Markus Sidauruk, anggota Konfederasi Serikat Buruh Sejahtera Indonesia dan Dewan Pengupahan Nasional

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Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum 1

Adakah sebuah legislasi yang terpisah bagi

upah minimum di

negara anda ? Kita

hanya

memiliki

sebagaimana pasal

satu

legislasi

tentang

Upah

Minimum

(UM)

diatur dalam UU No 13/2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan,

88, 89 dan 90. Sementara, peraturan khusus tentang Upah

minimum sendiri sebagai aturan pelaksana dari UU tersebut belum di keluarkan. Tetapi mengacu kepada peraturan Menteri sebelumnya No 226/2000 tentang Upah Minimum dijelaskan bahwa upah minimum dapat ditetapkan baik di tingkat Propinsi dan Kabupaten. Kedua UM tersebut ditetapkan oleh Gubernur berdasarkan masukkan Dewan pengupahan Propinsi untuk Upah Minimum Propinsi (UMP) dan berdasarkan masukan Dewan Pengupahan Kabupaten/Kotamadya dan atau Bupati/Walikota untuk Upah Minimum Kabupaten/kota (UMKab/Kota). Biasaya Gubernur menetapkan UM ini setiap setahunnya melalui Surat Keputusan Gubernur.

2

Apakah hanya ada satu atau beberapa upah minimum yang ditetapkan melalui Undang-undang ? Ya, berdasarkan peraturan upah minimum yang ada terdapat beberapa jenis

Upah

Minimum

baik

ditingkat

propinisi

maupun

kabupaten/kotamadya. Pada Tingkat Propinsi di mungkinkan nya

Upah

Minimum Propinsi (UMP) dan Upah Minimum Sectoral Propinsi (UMSP), sedang

ditingkat Kabupaten/Kotamadya di mungkinkan adanya

Upah

Minimum Kabupaten/Kotamadya (UMK) dan Upah Minimum Sektoral Kabupaten/Kotamadya (UMSK). Tetapi pada prinsipnya, hanya satu jenis ketentuan upah minimum yang berlaku bagi seorang pekerja dan hal itu tergantung dari jenis sektor dan kabupaten/kotamadya di mana mereka bekerja. Sebagai contoh, Jika seorang bekerja dalam suatu kabupaten di suatu propinsi, tetapi di kabupaten tersebut belum menetapkan UMK maka yang berlaku padanya adalah UMP. Jika seandainya UMK sudah ada di kapubaten di mana mereka bekerja, maka upah minimum yang berlaku adalah UMK. Seandainya lagi jika pekerja tersebut bekerja di sektor garment dan di kabupaten tersebut telah di tetapkan UM Sektoral Kabupaten (UMSK) maka Upah Minimum yang digunakan adalah Upah Minimum Sektoral Kabupaten didaerah tersebut. Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

15

Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum

3

Jika Ya, di tingkat mana upah minimum tersebut ditetapkan ?

Di Indonesia, upah minimum ditetapkan di tingkat Propinsi (di Indonesia sebagai pengganti wilayah adalah propinsi). Berdasarkan Pasal 89

UU

13/2003, setiap wilayah diberikan hak untuk menetapkan kebijakan Upah minimum

mereka

sendiri

baik

di

tingkat

propinsi

dan

tingkat

Kabupaten/kotamadya. Upah Minimum Sektoral/Propinsi ditetapkan di beberapa propinsi atas dasar kesepakatan antara organisasi pengusaha dan organisasi sektoral pekerja. Upah Minimum sektoral di tingkat Propinsi dan kabupaten/kotamadya adalah hasil perundingan antara pengusaha dan serikat pekerja dan ditetapkan oleh Gubernur . Di beberapa kota tertentu terutama di kota-kota besar seperti Jakarta, Surabaya dan Medan; Upah minimum juga ditetapkan berdasarkan jenis pekerjaan.

4

Atas dasar apa Upah Minimum dihitung ? Upah Minimum dihitung berdasarkan bulan, namun bagi para pekerja harian upah minimum dapat dibayar berdasarkan hitungan harian atau mingguan

5

Jika upah minimum di dasarkan mingguan/bulanan, apakah hal itu didasarkan jumlah jam kerja yang tetap ?

Upah minimum di hitung dengan ketentuan 40 jam/minggu. Hal ini di dasarkan pada UU 13/2003 Pasal 77 ayat (2) yang menjelaskan sbb: a). 7 jam per hari and 40 jam perminggu untuk selama 6 hari kerja dalam 1 minggu atau b). 8 jam per hari dan 40 jam per minggu untuk selama 5 hari kerja dalam 1 minggu.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

16

Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum Apakah perwakilan lembaga pemerintah, pengusaha dan atas 6

Serikat Buruh/Pekerja terlibat dalam penetapan upah minimum (jika mungkin diterapkan per provinsi)

Gubernur setiap propinsi menetapkan tingkat upah minimum berdasarkan rekomendasi dan usulan dari Dewan Pengupahan Propinsi untuk penetapan Upah Minimum Propinsi dan dari Bupati/Walikota dan atau Dewan Pengupahan

Kabupaten/Kota

untuk

penetapan

upah

Minimum

Kabupaten/kota. Rekomendasi dan usulan upah minimum tersebut di dasarkan hasil survey dan rapat dewan pengupahan. Dewan pengupahan ini

terdiri

dari

Perwakilan

organisasi

pemerintah,

pengusaha

dan

buruh/pekerja. Badan Pusat Statistik, Badan Perencanaan Daerah, Dinas Tenaga

Kerja,

Dinas

Perindustrian,

Dinas

Perdagangan,

Pertanian,

Kehutanan dan Dinas Perhubungan di tingkat wilayah, APINDO (Assosiasi Pengusaha Indoensia) dan 3 Konfederasi Serikat Pekerja yang dilibatkan adalah K-SBSI, K-SPSI and KSPI (termasuk di dalamnya federasi/serikat pekerja yang beraffiliasi ke salah satu dari 3 konfederasi tadi). Akademisi dan Ahli juga dilibatkan dalam dewan pengupahan di Indonesia

7

Bagaimana penyesu aian Upah Minimum diputuskan ?

Penyesuaian di lakukan oleh Gubernur setalah mendapatkan masukkan dari Dewan Pengupahan (Perwakilan Serikat Buruh, pengusaha dan Pemerintah) baik di tingkat propinsi untuk Upah Minimum Propinsi (UMP) dan Dewan Pengupahan kabupaten/Kotamadya untuk Upah Minimum Kabupaten/Kota Madya (UMK) 8

Apa saja komponen-komponen Upah Minimum di Indonesia ? Semua komponen adalah komponen tetap sebagaimana diatur dalam Keputusan Menteri No 17/MEN/VIII/2005. meliputi;

Makanan

&

Minuman,

Komponen-komponen ini

Perumahan,

Sandang,

Pendidikan,

Kessehatan, Transportasi, Rekreasi & Tabungan

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

17

Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum 9

Seberapa sering komponen tetap Upah Minimum diperbaharui ? Berdasarkan sejarahnya, Komponen Upah Minimum telah diperbaharui sebanyak 2 jali. Biasanya diperbaharui setiap 10 tahun sekali. Komponen Tetap tersebut diperbaharui berdasarkan masukan yang diterima dari Dewan Pengupahan Nasional dan kemudian di putuskan/ditetapkan oleh Presiden/Menteri Tenaga Kerja

10

Apa yang menjadi patokan dasar perhitungan Upah minimum ? Terdapat 6 faktor yang menjadi penentu

tingkat upah minimum

1).Kebutuhan hidup minimum pekerja 2). Indeks harga konsumen 3). Kemampuan, perkembangan

dan kelangsungan perusahaan 4). Tingkat

Upah yg berlaku di masyarakat 5). Tingkat perkembangan perekonomian dan pendapatan perkapita 6). Tingkat/Kondisi Pasar kerja. Informasi terhadap standar kebutuhan hidup di peroleh melalui survey yang dilaksanakan setiap bulan oleh dewan pengupahan. 11

Berapa batas kemiskinan nasional? (dalam Rp) Kota Rp 232.989; Desa Rp 192.354

12

Seberapa sering batas kemiskinan di perbaharui ? Setiap tahun

13

Kapan batas kemiskinan terakhir di perbaharui? (tahun, bulan)

Maret 2010

14

Berapa persentase besaran Upah Minimum terhadap batas garis kemiskinan saat ini ?

Upah Minimum Nasional/Garis Kemiskinan Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

18

Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum 15

Berapa besar pelaksanaan Upah Minimum dalam angkatan kerja national (hanya yang mendapatkan upah) ? 30% pelaksanaan Upah minimum dalam angkatan kerja adalah sebagai berikut : a). Dibawah 30% - biasanya mereka yang bekerja dengan status tidak tetap (pekerja harian, kontrak); b). 35% dari mereka bekerja di sektor swasta; c). Diatas 35% - sebagian dari mereka adalah pekerja di sektor pemerintah dengan status pekerja tetap

16

Bagaimana pengaduan Upah Minimum diatur ? Pengaduan Upah minimum diatur melalui pengawas ketenagakerjaan atau Serikat

Pekerja.

Berdasarkan

ketentuan

Pasal

176

pengawas

ketenagakerjaan mengawasi pelaksanaan upah minimum . Serikat Buruh juga bisa memastikan pelaksanaan upah minimum. 17

Sanksi hukum apa yang diterapkan berkenaan dengan pengaduan ? Berdasarkan UU 13/2003 pasal 185 ayat

1) Barang siapa melanggar

ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal

Pasal 90 ayat (1)

dikenakan sanksi denda paling sedikit Rp 100.000.000,00 (seratus juta rupiah) dan paling banyak Rp 400.000.000,00 (empat ratus juta rupiah). Berdasarkan UU 13/2003 pasal 185 ayat 1) Barang siapa melanggar ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal Pasal 90 ayat (1) dikenakan sanksi pidana penjara paling singkat 1 (satu) tahun dan paling lama 4 (empat) tahun. Berdasarkan pasal 90 ayat (2) Bagi pengusaha yang tidak mampu membayar upah minimum sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 89 (tentang upah minimum) idapat dilakukan penangguhan. Penangguhan pelaksanaan upah minimum bagi perusahaan yang tidak mampu dimaksudkan untuk membebaskan

perusahaan

yang

bersangkutan

melaksanakan

upah

minimum yang berlaku dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Apabila penangguhan tersebut

berakhir

maka

perusahaan

yang

bersangkutan

wajib

melaksanakan upah minimum yang berlaku pada saat itu tetapi tidak wajib membayar pemenuhan ketentuan upah minimum yang berlaku pada waktu diberikan penangguhan.

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

19

Upah Minimum Undang-undang Tanya Jawab Gaji Minimum

18

Apa sanksi sering di terapkan ? Hal ini tergantung atas laporan pengaduan yang dikirimkan ke pihak pemerintah

19

Apakah perwakilan Serikat Buruh dan/atau Pengusaha terlibat dalam Prosedur Pengaduan ? Tidak, perwakilan Pengusaha dan/atau Serikat Buruh tidak terlibat dalam prosedur penanganan pengaduan sebab upah minimum ditetapkan oleh pemerintah (gubernur)

20

Kepada

Siapa/Dimana

pekerja

dapat

mengadu,

Jika

mereka

merasa mendapatkan upah dibawah Upah Minimum ? Pekerja bisa mengadu kepada Pengusaha atau Managemen perusahaan atau Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat. Berdasarkan pasal 136 ayat (1) mereka perlu duduk bersama mencari kesepakatan. Terdapat sebuah penyelesaian melalui penyelesaian perselisihan hubungan industrial dan pengadilan perburuhan terkait dengan pengaduan. Pasal 136 Ayat (2) atau mengadu kepada LSM (Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat)

Authorship of Minimum Wage Database with WageIndicator Foundation, Amsterdam; Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies; Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Supported by www.paycheck.in & www.gajimu.com

20

Indian Institute of Management Vastrapur Ahmedabad -380 015 India

Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) University of Amsterdam Plantage Muidergracht 12 1018 TV Amsterdam The Netherlands

WageIndicator Foundation Plantage Muidergracht 12, 1018TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands [email protected]

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