The Corrosion of Ethics in Higher Education

Fostering Educational and Social Development: the Role of Higher Education in the @4IR Era

Francisco Marmolejo Global Lead. Tertiary Education The World Bank [email protected]



Email: [email protected]

.1 0





Average rate of return to year of schooling is 10.4%



10 Rate of return



Based on comparable estimates of 545 observations, 131 economies, 1970-2011 In Latest year available: average rate of return is 9.9%

Source: Montenegro, C.E. & H.A. Patrinos (2013). Returns to Schooling around the World. The World Bank

Returns highest at Tertiary Level


Table 3: Returns to schooling by educational level and region (latest available year between 2000-2011) Primary Secondary Tertiary GDP/pc (PPP 2005)


World Middle East and North Africa

10.3 9.4

6.9 3.5

16.8 8.9

6,719 3,645

74 7

South Asia Eastern and Central Europe

9.6 8.3

6.3 4.0

18.4 10.1

2,626 6,630

4 7

High Income Economies






East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean

11.0 9.3

6.3 6.6

15.4 17.6

5,980 7,269

6 20

Sub-Saharan Africa






Source: Montenegro, C.E. & H.A. Patrinos (2013). Returns to Schooling around the World. The World Bank

Source: Montenegro, C.E. & H.A. Patrinos (2013). Returns to Schooling around the World. The World Bank

45% 60%

Espinoza and Urzúa 2016. The figure shows, for each field and HEI type, the proportion of students facing negative expected





The Da Vinci Surgical Robot at Amrita Hospital has completed over 780 surgeries in multiple specialties in just 2 years

Principal factor of social mobility

More education leads to:

Elementary education

Higher education


Email: [email protected]

More than ever more people are having access to higher education … 250 200 150 100 50 0

Global enrollment in higher education (Millions of students)

80 World High income countries Upper middle income countries Lower middle income countries Low income countries

70 60 50

Malaysia: 48 % GER (2012)

40 30 20 10 0 1970


Source: UIS database









Source: World Bank World Development Report 2015

Decreasing >5 %

Increasing > 40 %

Source: World Bank. World Development Report. 2015

From 2015-2050, the total population in most of Europe will decrease by 5 % while most of Africa will grow by more than 40 % (World Bank, 2015).

By 2030, 42 % of the youth globally will live in Africa Currently more than 70 percent of youth in Africa live on less than 2 U.S. dollars per day

In the 21st century, we’re facing a massive change in the technologies and types of jobs available…We can’t be certain that both productivity and employment will rise.

We, as a society, need to make the commitment to guide our technologies responsibly and to capitalize on the prosperity we are creating, just as those who came before us did. That way we will ensure that AI technology creates opportunity for all, not just for a lucky few

Stephane Kasriel

A Gift Unearths a Rift University confirms rampant plagiarism

Some newspapers’ headlines

The need for more transparency in higher education Confidence crisis: Who appoints the President? Ethics Flap at a University University Ends Illegal Job Requirement Teaching Ethics in a Morally Compromised World The Corrosion of Ethics in Higher Education The End of College A donor provided funds for an Endowed Chair…Now he uses it Graduates ill prepared: Employers can’t find skilled workers Guidance on Stem Cells Freedom of research vs national security Clamping Down on Corruption University Adopts Conflicts Policy for Trustees


Email: [email protected]


Email: [email protected]

+ Integrity + Reliability + Flexibility + Empathy + Creativity + Awareness of contemporary issues

…But national level changes are not sufficient…

… Higher Education Institutions need to embrace the change themselves.



Continuing doing the same, but waiting different results

There is no magic formula… 

What it may work in one case

…it is not necessarily the best solution in other cases

A good idea, but..

A critical need

Too far from home

Too close to home

Too far from higher education

Part of higher education

A priority for “tomorrow”

A priority for ”yesterday”

“ The trouble with our times is that the future is not what it used to be ” Paul Valéry

Francisco Marmolejo Lead Education Specialist, India The World Bank Tel. +91-11-41479384

Email: [email protected] @fmarmole


The Corrosion of Ethics in Higher Education

Fostering Educational and Social Development: the Role of Higher Education in the @4IR Era Francisco Marmolejo Global Lead. Tertiary Education The Wo...

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