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The Internationalisation of Higher Education Whitepaper

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Introduction

Internationalisation continues to be on the agenda of higher education providers worldwide. It has significance for the sustainability of higher education at national level and subsequently the contribution that higher education makes to the development of a nation, its people; and its ability to compete in a global market. It is integral to economic well-being, driven and enabled by liberalisation of the international trade (General Agreement of Trade in Services – GATS). This, has led to the presence of foreign universities - or their campuses - operating within host countries; by technological development enabling ‘crossborder’ or on-line course provision, and by the growth of the knowledge society – a society that is focused upon the dissemination of knowledge that will improve the human condition. Internationalisation then is multifaceted and has implications for the entire university sector, and everyone working within a higher education institution. All of these implications have developmental consequences for higher education institutions, including human resource needs. These needs encompass the continuing professional development of established roles but also include new roles specifically developed to lead on, or support, the internationalisation process. Despite internationalisation remaining a central strategic objective for universities, for many high education practitioners it has remained a messy concept. It is variously interpreted, and it intersects with numerous other national agendas in higher education; it often builds upon narrow preconceptions limited to one of its facets – attracting international student fees for example. It is also subject to multiple theoretical positions associated with globalisation which, together with individual institutional profile and strategic direction has led to some diversity in the way in which internationalisation is positioned, and the mechanisms through which it is to be achieved.

The Internationalisation of Higher Education Whitepaper

Audience This whitepaper is aimed at professionals, academics and administrators seeking to understand how institutions approach internationalisation, and what the implications for working practices might be. It considers some of the new roles that have been established to lead on or support the different facets of the internationalising university.

Aims This paper aims to: a) Provide a basic framework for considering internationalisation and professional practice b) Encourage personal reflection on individual experience and developmental needs c) Inform of further resources to meet those needs.

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Contents 1.

Internationalisation: the role of higher education

2.

Internationalisation: underpinning rationales and organisational structures

3.

What does an internationalised university look like?

3.1

University structures and job roles

3.2

Internationalisation and organisational structure

3.3

Organisational structure and influence upon practice

3.4

Strategic perspective: a case study from the University of Cumbria

4.

Transnational education (TNE)

4.1

TNE Manager: a case study from the University of Wolverhampton

4.2

TNE – the Flying Campus: a case study from Coventry University

5.

Designing courses for the international student market: a case study from Birmingham City University

6.

English for academic purposes: a case study from the University of Nottingham

7.

Internationalisation for home students: case studies from the University of South Wales & BPP University

8.

Influence of internationalisation from a graduates perspective: a case study from UCL

9.

Developing an international portfolio

10.

External observation: thoughts from India: Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh

11.

Conclusion

12.

About the author

13.

Acknowledgements

The Internationalisation of Higher Education Whitepaper

Structure This paper is separated into sections covering a few of the numerous roles and responsibilities associated with internationalisation. These are exemplified by case studies provided by colleagues across a range of UK universities. A reflection from a graduate on his experience of internationalisation is provided and this paper concludes with an external observation from a senior academic at a University within India. Each section is brief, necessarily so, since the consequences of internationalisation on professional practice continues to be contested, and publications abound from a range of disciplinary perspectives debating the complexity of the concept itself. Analyses of these academic treatises are beyond the purview of this paper.

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Internationalisation: the role of higher education

The beliefs we hold about the purpose of higher education may vary and will influence the way in which our roles are carried out. Whatever these beliefs might be, internationalisation raises questions for each of us. The following suggestions about the purpose of universities were gathered from past workshops across universities in the UK: 1. Research: seeking new knowledge 2. Higher student learning and the development of critical thought 3. Preparation for work and the professions 4. Development of leaders of industry, government office and public service 5. Addressing challenges in order to contribute to the human condition. Reflecting upon the international, intercultural and/or global significance of each of them exposes the following challenges: Research: Whose research? Where does the body of knowledge upon which new knowledge will be built come from? Who are the people conducting the research? Where are they from? How internationally diverse are these research teams? Higher Learning and critical thought: What is meant by critical thought? Is it an end in itself? Are there different conceptions of critical thinking across the world? Whose definition is the correct one? What do differences in the education system and in learning approaches mean for teaching and learning? How can difference be useful in student development? Preparation for work and the professions How are students equipped for roles in multi-national companies or for working abroad? What relevance does internationalisation have on professions themselves? How are students prepared to progress into academic roles? Development of leaders What are the attributes of a ‘leader’ within a global context? How are these developed? Who is responsible? Addressing the challenges of the human condition How is research encouraged within learning and teaching? What is the role of universities in equipping students with the capabilities to live and work within an interconnected and vulnerable world? How does their learning help them to contribute to meeting global challenges? What is the place of global justice and equality within our practice and the disciplines themselves? Conclusion These are just some questions that internationalisation poses about the purposes of higher education and they require careful consideration. They are all of them, in some form being addressed at the institutional level, and they link to philosophies of education and higher learning. Understanding the institutional view is important, as is the ability to reflect upon our own values and beliefs about higher education and their institutional compatibility. 

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Internationalisation: underpinning rationales and organisational structures Whatever, the value or belief about higher education and its international significance, it will be covered by one or more of the following inter-related rationales that underpin the internationalisation of higher education at national and institutional level: • Academic (new knowledge, applications for knowledge, international intellectual interaction) • Socio-cultural development (equality, justice, inter-cultural understanding) • Political (peace and security, global positioning, workforce development) • Economic (global competition, preparing students for employment the global context) (Knight & De Wit, 1999) All of these rationales are significant for every university; even if one rationale is given institutional emphasis, the others are equally important and will interconnect. However, universities differ in character and context, thus, approaches to integrating internationalisation may differ too.

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What does an internationalised university look like? 3.1 University structures and job roles Internationalisation would perhaps be much clearer if all universities had the same infrastructure with standardised departments and job specifications as the following demonstrates.

International Office: International Student Recruitment

International Quality Assurance and Enhancement

Senior Management roles (e.g. International, Learning and Teaching, Library Services, Research) Responsible for Policy and Institutional Strategy

Home Students Study Abroad Office

International Partnership Units: Responsible for developing relationships for international franchise operations or for European partnerships

Faculty Internationalisation of the Curriculum

Global Research

Volunteering Services: Providing opportunities for overseas experience or with NGOs in ethnic communities in the UK

International Student Language Support: English for Academic Purposes

International Leadership Training Department

Educational/Academic Development Units (staff training internationalising curriculum and assessment issues)

International Staff Exchange Units

International Student Exchange Facility

Distance learning and on-line cross-border education

...and many more examples

International Students Careers Department

3.2 Internationalisation and organisational structure A standardised model is far too simplistic and such a model will not reflect every institution’s profile. Neither would it consider the increasingly inter-related nature of many roles. Some institutions do have separate units where one university establishes an International Partnership Unit with responsibility for the development of international collaboration. Others will include the role as an additional responsibility within academic faculty positions, or position it within the International Office. In addition, there is considerable overlap between functions, Volunteering Services may for example, be an integral part of Careers or link with schemes that encourage international work experience. There is a plethora of alternatives. Each setting however, provides opportunities for generating new understanding about internationalisation from within a distinct organisational structure.

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3.3 Organisational structure and influence upon practice Since there is overlap of some functions or objectives, departments or individual roles are often integrated and fluid. Academics for example, may find themselves designing curriculum for on-line delivery, learning from colleagues and supported by training provided by one or more central services departments. Professional and administrative staff may find themselves restructured into different departments, or occupying roles with responsibilities in more than one area. The roles and responsibilities associated with leading, enabling and implementing internationalisation are wide, changeable and interchangeable. Developing the ability to be flexible, to adapt to differing contexts, to apply skills and knowledge, to be able to work with colleagues occupying various roles within the institution, nationally and internationally, as well as engaging with students who will be internationally or culturally diverse - these are all characteristics of effective employees in an internationalised university of today. For those interested in applying for new positions, spending time understanding the character and strategic view of an institution is essential. This will give information for considering how the institution aligns with personal values and beliefs. It also helps in understanding how internationalisation might influence professional practice and working environment, and may suggest individual needs and opportunities available for professional development. 3.4 Strategic perspective: a case study from the University of Cumbria Professor Liz Beaty (now Emeritus) held the role of Vice Chancellor (Academic Enterprise and External Relations). Her strategic responsibility at the University of Cumbria focused upon regional and international development through enterprise and partnerships. Liz describes the University of Cumbria as a new university, formed from a number of colleges, most of which had very little international connections and few international students. The aim of this new University is to: 1. Encourage more international connections for students and staff 2. Develop curriculum focus in a global context

Professor Liz Beaty

3. Encourage more overseas students to study with the University of Cumbria both here and in their home country. In order to achieve these aims the University has established departments with specific responsibility, and have created new appointments. Advisory Boards have been set up which have a broad, inclusive remit and faculties have been expected to actively engage in their own internationalisation:

‘We have developed an International Office within External Relations, this included new appointments. We have also developed responsibilities with Faculties for international areas. The Internationalisation Advisory Group looks beyond international recruitment, more to policy and practice for globalisation of university activity and culture. We also look in this group at equal opportunities and well being of international students, how to encourage more exchanges (within financial sustainability) and global developments of relevance to the university development.’

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These organisational developments reveal the emphasis that Cumbria places on internationalisation in accordance with its own profile and mission. It is clear to see that all rationales are represented within Cumbria’s internationalisation mission. The following suggests how these could be isolated – although they can be perceived alternatively or with different emphasis:

Cumbria has:

Rationale:

‘Set targets for growth of international business including transnational.

Economic/Socio-cultural

Taken time and effort to understand legal requirements related to UKBA [United Kingdom Border Agency] and related quality issues.

Political/Academic

[Set] targets for revalidation of courses and new courses to incorporate international perspectives and offer international opportunities to students.

Academic/Socio-cultural

[Developed] recruitment practices that encourage international [student] applications (but this is very embryonic due to funding restrictions)

Economic/Socio-cultural/Academic

Increase[d] partnerships with institutions in other countries including an important relationship with Robert a College which brings a wide range of international students to UoC for short periods of study within an online MBA’

Academic/Political/Economic

Conclusion The emphasis of rationale, institutional targets and organisational structure may differ but there are clearly common concerns and implications for personnel. Liz suggests that thinking about [one’s] work within global horizons is imperative. Higher education is increasingly mobile as well as internationally competitive and the curriculum needs to be designed with global contexts in mind. Pedagogy (methods and practices of teaching) need to acknowledge the increasing need for [student] mobility including international mobility during and after the course. It needs t0 move away from euro-centric or ‘western’ source material in order to encourage inclusive learning for the benefit of all students. Increasingly, she advises, it will be an advantage to have studied abroad and to have international connections.  

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Transnational education (TNE) The terms ‘transnational’ and ‘cross-border’ are frequently referred to within the internationalising university. These are new terms relating to aspects of internationalisation that have resulted in the creation of brand new professional roles and a raft of new course design initiatives for faculty too. Although these terms are most frequently used interchangeably, there are important but subtle differences (Knight, Higher Education Crossing Borders: A Guide to the Implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Cross-border Education 2005, p.19). Whilst Cross-border education is generic embracing: ‘The movement of people, knowledge, programs, providers and curriculum across national or regional jurisdictional borders. [and is] is a subset of “internationalization of higher education” and can be an element in the development cooperation projects, academic exchange programs and commercial initiatives.’ (ibid, p. 18).

‘Transnational Education is ‘concerned with educational service arrangements of courses of study, in which learners are located in a country different from the one where the awarding institution is based. Students experience their education, or some significant part of it, at distance from the home campus of the awarding institution.’ (The Key Elements of TNE, Mercado and Gibson, 2013)

Mercado and Gibson (ibid) illustrate one common model of TNE as: ‘International franchises and validation agreements [that] tie together institutions from different countries in contractual arrangements based on licence and/or mutual recognition. The aim of these is to enable students to study for the degree of a foreign university without being taught on the home campus of that university.’ Such agreements involve working with a range of people within an awarding institution as well as people in the country where the course is actually delivered. This means that: ‘It is now more important than ever to ensure that TNE programmes are aligned, not just to the strategic goals of the foreign degree provider, but also to the needs of the stakeholders in the hosting country. In their simplest form TNE stakeholders can be categorised into:

• Academic partners as providers • Faculty and staff engaged in delivery (potentially across different institutions) • Students and their families as consumers • Government as enablers and regulators • Employers and the community as beneficiaries • Local institutions as potential competitors and collaborators’

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4.1 TNE Manager: a case study from the University of Wolverhampton Richard Gatward is the Head of Transnational Education at Wolverhampton University. He holds a coordinating managerial post and contributes to the development of strategies for developing and delivering Transnational Education Services provided by the university. His post was designed as a direct strategic response to Wolverhampton’s internationalisation mission and University of Opportunities vision. Richard works with faculties, facilitating transnational developments by providing expertise on processes (regulations and quality issues) and through working with national agencies both home and abroad. Through engagement with national agencies he identifies further opportunities for TNE development and proposes to faculties for their consideration. Richard engages with a diverse range of people across the university both nationally and internationally and his role includes substantial ‘Knowledge Brokerage’. Aligning with the concept of the Knowledge Society - a key driver of internationalisation, knowledge brokerage is defined as:

Richard Gatward ‘A dynamic activity that is the human force behind knowledge exchange and adoption. It involves bringing people together, helping to build links, identifying gaps and needs, and sharing ideas. It allows information to be used to solve a problem or lead to a better way of doing things. It also includes assisting groups to communicate and understand each other’s abilities and needs, and assists with guiding people to sources of research. This may include summarising and synthesising research and policy into easily understood formats and transforming issues into research questions. Knowledge brokering encourages the use of research in planning and implementation and uses evaluation activities to identify successes or improvements.’ (Land and Water Australia http://www.lwa.gov.au/library)

The skills are integral to the role and prior experience in higher education is essential. Richard’s role is dependent upon knowledge and skills gained from a multiplicity of roles in UK Higher Education. However, Richard suggests that for someone with the appropriate experience beginning a new role as a TNE manager: ‘The most crucial thing is being made familiar with who the key stakeholders are, what their roles are and what the organisational structure and practice of the institution is.’

This reference to understanding the organisational structure emphasises again the significance of adapting to differing institutional contexts. Significant too, is developing in others an appreciation of the purpose and process of the TNE manager’s role and of what TNE is and is not. Richard says that because internationalisation is sometimes misunderstood, or different central services agendas take priority TNE can be impeded. Although this is a common issue across the HE sector, it is an issue that TNE managers like Richard have to resolve.

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Despite the challenges of working with TNE, for Richard, it is clearly a rewarding role. He says that, ‘engaging with others internationally, [and] making a disproportionate difference to the institution’ is the most exciting aspect of his work. He also suggests that anyone working in an effective international or intercultural team should have the following characteristics: a) Broad experience of the UK HE system, b) Interest in international activities, including travel and engaging with other cultures, c) Well managed d) Motivated e) Possess a broad range of skills recognised and respected by other team members. Conclusion Senior TNE roles such as this are clearly perceived as significant in enabling successful faculty engagement with TNE targets and contribute to the institution’s overall internationalisation strategy. Whilst these roles are new, those who occupy them must have credibility, in-depth knowledge of the higher education sector and must be able to broker new knowledge. It is roles such as this that lead to some of the exciting new trends in international course delivery. Courses which are developed, delivered or supported by academics and administrative staff working across institutions, nations and continents. They contribute to the personal and professional development of students, advance intercultural understanding and the socio-economic development of all of the countries involved.

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4.2 TNE - the Flying Campus ‘subject expert’: a case study from Coventry University One kind of TNE arrangement is that of a Flying Campus. This involves the physical movement of persons from one country to another to deliver part of, or all, educational provision. At Coventry University, within the Faculty of Engineering and Computing, such an arrangement has been established with the Ghana Technology University College, Accra, Ghana. The arrangement involves a number of Coventry University courses being delivered in Accra, by Accra personnel. However, because these courses belong to Coventry, quality assurance remains their own responsibility. Issues of student attainment and progression, examination procedures, staff development and teaching learning, teaching and assessment methods as well as curriculum content and design, require the oversight and expertise of Coventry personnel. Coventry staff travel to Ghana regularly to work with colleagues in Accra to support the academic development of their Accra colleagues and to ensure the effective delivery of the provision. Dr Richard Rider is one of the Subject Experts for the Accra provision. This is an additional role to the academic teaching responsibilities he holds within his Faculty. His role involves the moderation of marking and attendance at Examination Boards, teaching (if called for), and staff development. Working in Ghana has, for him been rewarding but he has experienced challenges in this work because of differing academic practices and the level of experience Accra staff have in comparison with UK colleagues. These challenges are revealed during quality assurance processes such as examination moderation and reported to the Examination Boards who will decide upon appropriate staff development interventions to overcome them. Dr Richard Rider To be effective in this role, he says, a grasp of the subjects represented within the course is needed. In addition, an excellent understanding of all of the awarding institution’s academic regulations and processes, along with the ability to apply them is needed. A good understanding of how committees are conducted and good interpersonal skills are also essential. Liaison with the external examiner and colleagues within Coventry’s Academic Partnership Unit – the role of this unit is similar to Richard Gatward’s function at Wolverhampton (above) - is necessary as is liaison across the Coventry University subject groups. For Richard Rider, any expectation of seeing much of Ghana is slight. He says: the work is intensive but rewarding. The ability to travel and then begin work with little rest means that resilience and adaptability is called for. Working in such conditions is nonetheless clearly satisfying. He says: ‘Working with such a range of people is a privilege and I know that I am contributing something that will make a positive difference to the development of Ghana and to my own understanding of working across cultures’.

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Designing courses for the international student market: a case study from Birmingham City University Many universities have designed courses with the international market in mind. Dr Pete Wilby is a Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication at Birmingham City University. One postgraduate course that he is responsible for was developed primarily to attract international students. This involves him, not only in curriculum design, teaching and assessing the programme, but in working closely with the International Office that handles recruitment. This part of his work includes: • Reviewing student applications • Offering places to students Dr Pete Wilby

• Advising the International Office on course promotion.

Apart from the course design, development, course promotion, recruitment, and delivery, he has to manage situations that are often the result of:

‘Differing expectations and criteria for academic quality indicated in institutions abroad providing evidence of skill and achievement by their students.’

Because of this, Pete’s international postgraduate students may well have undertaken their undergraduate courses within different educational systems, leading to such a mismatch of expectations not only by students themselves but also by recruitment agents on commission in their home countries. He would advise that ‘the ability to manage students’ expectations of postgraduate study in the UK and a practical knowledge of regulations around study visas and work experience are essential to effective postgraduate international student provision.’ Pete would suggest his ideal team would comprise people who have: • Experience in teaching international students • Engagement with / understanding of cultural, social, economic, vocational and political factors behind students’ interests in studying in the UK • Experience in internationally-relevant curriculum design.

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English for academic purposes: a case study from the University of Nottingham Another new role that has been established as a direct response to internationalisation is that of Tutor for English for Academic Purposes. Dr Joanna Al-Yousef has one such role at the University of Nottingham. Joanna explain the contribution her role plays to the Nottingham’s’ Internationalisation Strategy. Joanna’s role is essential in providing support for students who will have specific needs related to studying a long way from home and family, in a different language and possibly in an education system that is very unfamiliar. This role calls for:

Dr Joanna Al-Yousef

a) b) c) d)

A good knowledge of teaching, learning and assessment Expertise in linguistics An ability to provide pastoral support An ability to work across departments and with the International Office.

Joanna needs to understand institutional policy and procedures as well as the Home Office regulations that must be adhered to when international students come to the UK. Because of this, she has to be able to liaise with the International Office which has administrative, research, marketing, publicity and recruitment responsibilities. ‘Having international students on university campus is generally seen as one aspect of internationalisation. In order to maintain numbers, and therefore maintain that internationalisation aspect, tutors like myself are employed to provide the support (linguistic, pastoral, as well as academic) to those [international] students.’ Despite the focus of her role being upon effective retention of a strong ‘international student’ cohort, she tells us that this does not in itself mean that internationalisation has been achieved. How we live and learn together by respecting differences and challenging inequalities emerges from Joanna’s personal statement as important principles that guide her practice.

‘For me personally, numbers of international students, staff etc. is not an indication of the existence of that dimension, but it is merely a reflection of a globalised world in which mobility has meant the co-existence of different cultural and nationality groups. A true internationalisation is in the daily practices of individuals in higher education institutions; the practices that break the barriers rather than reproduce the divide.’

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Internationalisation, international and intercultural ‘labels’ are messy terms. Joanna seeks opportunities to talk with her colleagues about meanings attributed to the ‘international’ and ‘intercultural’ dimension. She says the most important characteristic of working in an international/ intercultural team is:

‘The knowledge that each team member has an ‘international’ layer to their identity which makes them unique, but not different to be ostracised. Open conversations on what it means to be an international/intercultural team is another very important characteristic, in my opinion, as we tend to assume that we all share the same understanding of these terms, and it is that assumption that can be counter-productive for the work of the team especially in critical situations or crisis when communication breaks down.’

Joanna believes that the influence of internationalisation upon academic / related roles is likely to increase as there is an: ‘Increasing emphasis on the term, even in job advertisements. However, this is not to say that institutions are all heading towards one big internationalisation, it’s not a move from ‘here’ to ‘there’. It is rather an on-going negotiation and questioning of who we are and how we (want to) relate to the world.’

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Internationalisation for home students: case studies from University of South Wales & BPP University Designing courses specifically to attract an international cohort is an aspect of the internationalisation of the curriculum, as is the support of international student. However, internationalisation is as important for ‘Home’ students. In some ways, international students already have an advantage on home students since they are by definition international in outlook. Moreover, many UK Home students do not, for a variety of reasons, travel elsewhere to learn. Jenny Hann is Head of School: Design, Engineering, Fashion and Technology at University of South Wales. Jenny explains how colleagues within her department are engaged in international work and use international projects for student learning. She explains that: ‘Film makers and photographers, fashion designers and advertising design students and staff are frequently engaged with project work undertaken overseas or focussing on issues of international significance. ‘

Jenny points to the relationship between teaching and research, explaining that teaching and learning is [and should be] influenced by international research: One example she give is: ‘Photography staff have a strong connection in Brazil and have hosted exhibitions of work from practitioners in Brazil. A reader in documentary film making recently made an award winning film about women lawyers in the Congo – entitled ‘Sisters in Law.’

Interestingly, Jenny’s example relates to a description of disciplinary research based on issues of global equality and justice. She is mindful of the relationship between research and teaching through overseas projects offered to students.

Jenny Hann

Within any role at an internationalising university, it is important to be able to speak about the international significance and cultural implications of discipline and practice. Academic and professional practice is often already developing an international dimension. It is worthwhile to consider and be able to explain - how this dimension is becoming is evident? If an international dimension is not present, consider how it should/could be developed for the international university of today and what the implications are for professional development?

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Internationalisation and the whole learning community Dr Simon Atkinson from BPP University College, a UK private degree awarding institution, is the Associate Dean for Teaching and Learning. Simon tells us that his role is being influenced by internationalisation because of the ‘growing diversity in our classrooms and online [course] enrolments’. This influence has contributed to a wider strategy involving the senior team and he has established a working group, the ‘Cultural Sensitivities Working Group’ and a bid to an HEA change initiative project called POISE.

Dr Simon Atkinson

The focus of this development, he says, is not about international student recruitment but it: ‘is to overcome a deficit model that sees “international students as a problem” and reflects the more positive notion that ALL our students are experiencing an internationalised education.’

Simon believes that there is a lack of understanding at all levels ‘as to how profound, subtle and nuanced, the impacts of cultural differences are on learning and teaching’. This lack of knowledge and need to work with diverse student groups, supporting them in their learning and encouraging them to learn from each other, is a concern. A concern which is echoed by many who recognise the significance of what is taught and how it is taught. Reflecting upon what intercultural learning might mean and developing approaches to engage students in intercultural learning is an important professional activity. Questions arise about how students receive an internationalised education, even if they do not travel to another country. Similarly, how a curriculum should be designed to incorporate international mobility to all students (as Liz Beaty suggests), should also be considered.

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Influence of internationalisation from a graduates perspective: a case study from UCL Tarek Cheaib has just completed a MEng in Civil Engineering at UCL with a year abroad at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the US. He is President of the University College London Union ‘Engineers without Borders’. His work highlights the role of internationalisation in promoting global justice. Tarek has been involved in many programmes that seek to encourage pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds to pursue higher education. This means that he will be working inter-culturally, raising aspirations of many young people within the region to attend university and to benefit from the international perspective that it should bring. Tarek Cheaib

He explains that his discipline, Civil Engineering, used to have a national focus but that now, ‘students are trained to adapt quickly to our changing environment and global boundaries.’

Clearly, this training will be essential as he will be working within one of the biggest British engineering firms and his first assigned project is a sustainable city project in Oman. Tarek describes himself as one of the ‘third culture’ children. ‘A TCK (Third culture kid) is a person who has spent a significant part of his or her developmental years outside the parents’ culture. The TCK frequently builds relationships to all of the cultures, while not having full ownership in any. Although elements from each culture may be assimilated into the TCK’s life experience, the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of similar background.’(David C. Pollock) He observes that in his experience companies are increasingly interested in the [students with] the ability to adapt in any environment. Tarek advises three key areas for professional development: 1. Communication skills and languages 2. Ability to adapt 3. Analytical skills For him, an effective international/ intercultural team would be able to: ‘Work efficiently together in spite of the fact that no one has English as their first language’.

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Developing an international portfolio

Throughout this paper, colleagues have suggested the characteristics and desired skills for working in internationalisation roles. The following is a list of activities that help in developing a personal international portfolio: a) Consider how home students from a particular social or cultural group may have similar needs to those of an international student b) Discuss with colleagues, students, family and friends their experience of higher education c) Reflect on experiences, good and bad, that have resulted from international/intercultural diversity d) Encourage ‘international’ and ‘home’ students to talk to each other, and learn from each other and gather information from these discussions to develop an appreciation of the needs of these students. Such discussions will help them to develop the ability to work in increasingly international and intercultural teams to equip them for their future anyway e) Reflect on what is to be taught and how it is to be taught. Is it an appropriate curriculum for the needs of 21st century?’ f) Consider the extent currently of an intercultural dimension amongst teams and working groups (face to face or at a distance) g) Discuss internationalisation with colleagues h) Visit campuses or universities abroad i) Attend courses on internationalisation provided by your institution or externally. Advice on the most appropriate will be given by your Academic Development Unit or check the Higher Education Academy Website: www.heacademy.ac.uk j) A whole raft of resources have been published on the national Higher Education Academy Website to help those involved in teaching and learning support, most of these have been gathered from the academic community across the UK. The Leadership Foundation has useful resources and further links for senior managers. Working within an international team comprises individuals, each with different strengths and levels of experience. This means that if one team member does not have all of these characteristics and there is often room for professional development. A willingness to learn from others is characteristic of a learning organisation. Especially if prior experience can be applied to new contexts. Even with no experience of working with international students, as such, it is unlikely that anyone does not have any experience of working with cultural diversity. This experience can be drawn on and make excellent contributions to team endeavours.

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External observation - thoughts from India: Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh AR Kidwai is Professor of English at the Department of English, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), a central university in India. He is also the Director, UGC Academic Staff College, which is akin to the Staff Development Centre of a British university. The context and characteristic of AMU is very different to UK HEIs. Internationalisation at this university is mediated nationally through continent wide interventions and initiatives. The UGC College promotes the intercultural dimension indirectly in that the College hosts Higher Education teachers from all parts of India. The variety of teachers represent the vast cultural, linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity of the continent and they partake in 3-4 weeks long residential professional development courses. AR Kidwai

Professor Kidwai explains that the University tries to attain the dimension of internationalisation by organising what he terms ‘extension programmes’. These include:

i) Sensitising Madrasa (traditional Muslim religious educational institutions) introducing students/teachers to the challenges and issues of pluralism/peaceful co-existence through workshops sponsored by the British High Commission, New Delhi. ii) Broadening the mental horizon of the AMU school students through organising the EAMP (English Language Skills Proficiency Programme), sponsored by the American Centre, US Embassy, New Delhi. This enables these students to learn more about the American history, culture and way of life. Internationalisation then for AMU, is founded upon the integration of an intercultural dimension but also the search for peaceful co-existence through their work with the British and US Embassy. Despite the difference in institutional mission, he, like others in this guide, have felt that interpretations of internationalisation offer enormous possibilities. Professor Kidwai articulates what many feel to be the spirit of internationalisation. Internationalisation should:

’Promote a better understanding of fellow human beings and build bridges, across the barriers of colour, creed and ethnicity.’

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Conclusion

Internationalisation is now an integral part of higher education and it cannot be avoided. Transnational education, international student recruitment, international student support, the internationalisation of home students and the integrated approaches responding to student, and staff diversity are all important. As are other areas like the use of on-line learning, that is not included here. Each area now has substantial research supporting it and there are many examples of practice, which these brief outlines do not do full justice to. It is also important to stress however, that each of these facets of internationalisation are inextricably linked. The internationalisation of the curriculum is important in course design for home and international students and for TNE students. Recognising that internationalisation is essential to reforming higher education. Internationalisation is aimed at improving the human well-being and is an important step to developing professional practice within higher education today.

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About the author Elizabeth Rider-Grant is a Higher Education Consultant and Curriculum Adviser based near Rugby, Warwickshire, UK. Her clients have included government departments, universities and industry. She has extensive experience of academic development in the UK and has worked with universities in Ethiopia, India and Greece. She was formerly Principal Teaching Fellow (Reader) Internationalisation of the Curriculum at UCL. Elizabeth Rider-Grant

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Acknowledgements Professor Liz Beaty, University of Cumbria Richard Gatward, Wolverhampton University Dr Richard Rider, Coventry University Dr Pete Wilby, Birmingham City University Jenny Hann, University of South Wales Dr Joanna Al Yousef, University of Nottingham Tarek Cheaib, Engineers Without Borders Professor AR Kidwai, Aligarh Muslim University

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